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mowj-e sedâ (#)
Fr.: onde sonore
A → longitudinal wave which when striking the ear gives rise to the sensation of sound. Such waves can be propagated in solids, liquids, and gases. The material particles transmitting sound waves oscillate in the direction of propagation of the wave itself. There is a large range of frequencies within which longitudinal waves can stimulate the human ear and brain to the sensation of hearing. This range is from about 20 → Hz to about 20,000 Hz and is called the audible range. → ultrasound; → infrasound.
Fr.: sondage, radiosondage
1) In geophysics, any penetration of the natural environment for
From Fr. sonder, → sonde.
From gomâné, → sonde, + zani verbal noun of zadan "to do; to strike, beat; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").
A small, free balloon sent into the upper atmosphere to measure, record, and transmit meteorological reports to a ground station.
1) The quality of being → sound.
General: Any thing or place from which something comes, arises, or is obtained.
M.E., from O.Fr. sourse "a rising, beginning, fountainhead of a river or stream," from p.p. of sourdre "to rise, spring up," from L. surgere "to rise," → surge.
Xan "source," variant xân (Gilaki xoni, Tabari xoni,Laki kyani, Tâleši xâni, xoni,); Mid.Pers. xân, xânig "source, spring," Av. xâ-, xan- "source, fountain, spring," xayana- "belonging to a spring;" cf. Khotanese khâhâ- "spring, fountain;" Skt. khâ'- "spring, source."
Fr.: fonction source
For a radiating material, the ratio of emissivity to opacity.
The cardinal point which is opposite to north. It is also the direction of the Sun at local noon (in the northern hemisphere).
M.E. suth(e), south(e), from O.E. suth "southward, in the south;" cf. O.S., O.Fris. suth "southward, in the south," M.Du. suut), O.H.G. sund, perhaps related to base of *sunnon "sun," with sense of "the region of the sun."
South is related to right since it is to the right when one faces the rising Sun.
This occurs in, for example, in Av., Skt., and O.Ir., as below.
South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)
nâsâni-ye Atlas-e daštar
Fr.: Anomalie Atlantique Sud
A region of the Earth where the inner → Van Allen belt comes closest to the Earth's surface. It is due to the fact that the → geomagnetic field is offset from the center of the Earth. The region is centered near 25 degrees South 50 degrees West, close to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The excess of trapped energetic particles in that region presents a problem for satellites in orbit around the Earth.
south celestial pole
qotb-e âsmâni-ye daštar
Fr.: pôle sud céleste
Fr.: point Sud
South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD)
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Daštar
Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle sud
A large area of the south polar region of → Mars which is covered with layers of → water ice and → dust. The SPLD, like the NPLD, has a maximum relief relative to the surrounding terrain of ~ 3.5 km and ~ 1,000 km across. Above the SPLD lies a very thin temporary (1-10 m) cap of → carbon dioxide ice/frost that snows out in the winter and sublimates over the spring and summer seasons. It is believed that the rhythmic nature of the deposits is related to oscillations in Mars' → orbital parameters (J. J. Plaut et al., 2007, Science 316, 92).
Fr.: pôle Sud
1) An → imaginary point in the
→ southern hemisphere representing the intersection of the
→ Earth's → rotation axis with the
→ globe with the → celestial sphere.
South Pole Star
setâre-ye qotb-e daštar
Fr.: étoile du pôle sud
A star that would mark the south → celestial pole. Presently no bright visible star is situated along the → rotation axis of the Earth in the southern hemisphere. But, because of the Earth's → axial precession, about 7,000 years from now the star → Delta Velorum in the constellation → Vela, the Sail, will come to within 0.2 degrees of the South Celestial Pole (around the year 9250 B.C.). That is closer to marking the celestial pole than → Polaris or → Sirius ever do during their reigns as pole stars! Sirius will become the South Pole Star some 60 thousand years from now (around the year 66270 B.C.). In that time, Sirius will come to within 1.6 degrees of the South Celestial Pole.
Fr.: du Sud, méridional
Of or pertaining to the south.
M.E., O.E. suðerne, from suð, → south, + -erne, suffix denoting direction.
Daštari, relating to daštar, → south.
Fr.: Croix du Sud
Popular name for the constellation → Crux. Its four brightest stars form a distinctive cross shape.
Fr.: hémisphère sud
The transit of a celestial object, especially the Sun, across the meridian due south of the observer.
Verbal noun from → south (v.).
1) Physics: That part of the boundless four dimensional continuum in
which matter can be physically extended.
M.E., from O.Fr. espace, from L. spatium "room, area, distance, stretch of time," of unknown origin.
Fazâ, loan from Ar.
bâr-e fazâyi (#)
Fr.: charge d'espace
Electricity: An electric charge belonging to a cloud of electrons lying between
a cathode and plate within an electric tube.
Fr.: débris spatial
Man-made objects in orbit around the Earth that no longer serve any useful purpose. The estimated number of debris include about 22,000 tractable objects larger than 10 cm in all orbits, of which 2,200 are dead satellites and last stages of the rocket that put them in orbit. There are also left-overs from spacecraft and mission operations, such as bolts, lens caps, clamp bands, auxiliary motors, etc. The debris presents a threat because of their high speeds, which ranges between 15 and 20 km/sec. Also called space junk, space waste, orbital debris.