# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 principle of action and reaction   پَروز ِ ژیرش و واژیرش، ~ کنش و واکنش   parvaz-e žireš va vâžireš, ~ koneš va vâkonešFr.: principe d'action et de réaction   Newton's third law of motion, which states that for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction.→ principle; → action; → reaction. principle of constancy   پروز ِ پایایی ِ تندی ِ نور   parvaz-e pâyâyi tondi-ye nurFr.: principe de la constance de la vitesse de la lumière   The second postulate in Einstein's theory of → special relativity whereby the → velocity of light in → vacuum has the same absolute value in all → inertial reference frames irrespective of the direction and speed of propagation of the light source. It should be emphasized that this constancy of the speed of light holds among → reference frames moving uniformly with respect to each other. An observer accelerated with respect to a light source will measure a speed of light that is smaller than the speed of light measured in a → rest frame. See also → principle of relativity.→ principle; constancy, noun related to → constant. principle of covariance   پَروز ِ هم‌ورتایی   parvaz-e hamvartâyiFr.: principe de covariance   In special relativity, the principle that the laws of physics take the same mathematical form in all inertial frames of reference.→ principle; → covariance. principle of equivalence   پَروز ِ هموگ‌ارزی   parvaz-e hamug-arziFr.: principe d'équivalence   In → general relativity the principle which states that in the immediate proximity of an → accelerating system the acceleration is physically equivalent to → gravitational force. This principle also implies the equivalence of → gravitational mass and → inertial mass. Same as the → equivalence principle. See also → Einstein's elevator.→ principle; → equivalence. principle of excluded middle   پروز ِ میانی سکلانده   parvaz-e miyâni sokalândéFr.: principe du milieu exclu, ~ ~ tiers ~   The second principle of → formal logic introduced in Aristotle's theory of the → syllogism: A statement is either → true or → false. In other words, two → contradictory → propositions cannot both be true. The truth of one implies the falsehood of the other. Also called law of excluded middle and → principle of excluded third.→ principle; → exclude; → middle. principle of excluded third   پروز ِ سومی سکلانده   parvaz-e sevomi sokalândéFr.: principe du tiers exclu   Same as → principle of excluded middle.→ principle; → exclude; → third. principle of identity   پروز ِ ایدانی   parvaz-e idâniFr.: principe d'identité   The first principle of → formal logic introduced in Aristotle's theory of the → syllogism: If a statement is true then it is true. Also called → law of identity.→ principle; → identity. principle of least action   پَروز ِ کمترین ژیرش، ~ ~ کنش   parvaz-e kamtarin žireš, ~ ~ konešFr.: principe de moindre action   The principle that, for a system whose total mechanical energy is conserved, the path to be taken for the system from one configuration to another is the one whose action has the least value relative to all other possible paths and from the same configurations. Also called Maupertuis' principle, least-action principle.→ principle; → least; → action. principle of non-contradiction   پروز ِ ناپادگویی   parvaz-e nâpâdguyiFr.: principe de non-contradiction   The third principle of → formal logic introduced in Aristotle's theory of the → syllogism: No statement can be both → true and → false at the same time. Also called → law of non-contradiction.→ principle; → non-; → contradiction. principle of relativistic causality   پروز ِ بنارمندی ِ باز‌آنیگی‌مند   parvaz-e bonârmandi-ye bâzânigi-mandFr.: principe de la causalité relativiste   One consequence of the theory of → special relativity, according to which no two events separated by a distance greater than their separation in time multiplied by the → speed of light may have a → causal influence on each other. Violation of this principle leads to → paradoxes, such as that of an → effect preceding its → cause.→ principle; → relativistic; → causality. principle of relativity   پروز ِ بازانیگی   parvaz-e bâzânigiFr.: principe de relativité   The first postulate in Einstein's theory of → special relativity whereby all the laws of physics are the same in every → inertial reference frame. In other words, no physical measurement can distinguish one inertial reference frame from another. See also → principle of constancy.→ principle; → relativity. print   ۱) چاپ؛ ۲) چاپ‌کردن   1) câp; 2) câp kardanFr.: 1) impression, empreinte, imprimé; 2) imprimer   1a) The state of being printed. 1b) Printed lettering, especially with reference to character, style, or size. 1c) Printed material; a printed publication, as a newspaper or magazine. 2a) To produce (a text, picture, etc.) by applying inked types, plates, blocks, or the like, to paper or other material either by direct pressure or indirectly by offsetting an image onto an intermediate roller. 2b) To reproduce (a design or pattern) by engraving on a plate or block. 2c) To form a design or pattern upon, as by stamping with an engraved plate or block. 2d) To cause (a manuscript, text, etc.) to be published in print (Dictionary.com).M.E. prent(e), print(e), prient(e), from OF priente "impression," noun use of feminine p.p. of preindre "to press," from L. premere "to press, hold fast."Câp "press," loan from Indo-Aryan languages chapa, chháp, chāp "seal, stamp, impression." printer   چاپگر   câpgarFr.: imprimante, imprimeur   1) A person or thing that prints, especially a person whose occupation is printing. 2) Computers: An output device that produces a paper copy of alphanumeric or graphic data (Dictionary.com).→ print; → -er. printer font   ریختار ِ چاپگر   rixtâr-e câpgarFr.: fonte d'imprimante   A font used for printing. See also → screen font.→ printer; → font. prior   پرین   parinFr.: précédent, antérieur   1) Preceding in time or in order; earlier or former; previous. 2) Preceding in importance or privilege.O.E., from M.L. prior "former, previous, first, superior," comparative of O.L. pri "before," from PIE *prai-, *prei-, from root *per- "forward, through," → pro-.Parin, from pra-, fra- "before, forward, forth," cognate with Gk. and L. → pro-. priority   پرینی   pariniFr.: priorité   The condition or quality of being earlier in time or occurrence, or being regarded as more important.→ prior; → -ity. prism   منشور   manšur (#)Fr.: prisme   Optics: A transparent solid body, having at least two polished plane faces inclined relative to each other, from which light is reflected or through which light is refracted. Geometry: A solid having two faces lying in parallel planes and with the other faces parallelograms.L.L. prisma, from Gk. prisma, literally "something sawed," from prizein "to saw."Manšur, etymology not clear, may be related to Ar. mawšur "prism," of unknown origin. prism angle   زاویه‌ی ِ منشور   zâviye-ye manšurFr.: angle de prisme   The angle between the faces on which light is incident and from which it emerges.→ prism; → angle. prism binoculars   دوچشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   docešmi-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdârFr.: jumelles à prismes   An optical device consisting of a pair of small telescopes mounted side by side, each telescope having two prisms between the eyepiece and objective for erecting the image.→ prism; → binoculars. prism ocular   چشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   caši-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdârFr.: prisme oculaire   An ocular equipped with a prism that forms an upright image in an astronomical telescope.→ prism; → ocular.