A combination of → cells connected together so as to produce useful electrical energy.
M.Fr. batterie "a grouping of artillery pieces for tactical purposes," from O.Fr. baterie "beatng, thrashing, assault," from battre "to beat," from L. battuere "to beat."
Bâtri, loanword from Fr., as above.
A body of water forming an indentation of the shoreline, larger than a cove but smaller than a → gulf (Dictionary.com).
M.E. baye, from M.Fr. baie, from L.L. bâia, perhaps ultimately from Iberian bahia.
Bâhé, loan from Sp. bahia.
Fr.: designation de Bayer
A stellar designation system in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its hosting → constellation's Latin name. For example, Alpha Eridani, Delta Cephei, Lambda Bootis. The Greek alphabet has only 24 letters. In case a single constellation contained a larger number of stars, Bayer amended with Latin letters: upper case A, followed by lower case b through z (omitting j and v), for a total of another 24 letters. Bayer did not go beyond z, but later astronomers added more designations using both upper and lower case Latin letters, the upper case letters following the lower case ones in general. Examples include, for Vela: a Vel (Velorum), z Vel, A Vel, Q Vel; for Scorpius: d Sco (Scorpii), A Sco; for Leo: b Leo (Leonis), o Leo, A Leo, → c Orionis. Compare with the → Flamsteed designation.
First introduced by Johann Bayer (1572-1625) in his atlas Uranometria, published in 1603 at Augsburg, Germany; → designation.
Fr.: théorème de Bayes
A theorem in probability theory concerned with determining the → conditional probability of an event when another event has occurred. Bayes' theorem allows revision of the original probability with new information. Its simplest form is: P(A|B) = P(B|A) P(A)/P(B), where P(A): independent probability of A, also called prior probability; P(B): independent probability of B; P(B|A): conditional probability of B given A has occurred; P(A|B): conditional probability of A given B has occurred, also called posterior probability. Same as Bayes' rule.
Named after its proponent, the British mathematician Reverend Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). However, Bayes did not publish the theorem during his lifetime; instead, it was presented two years after his death to the Royal Society of London.
Being, relating to, or denoting statistical methods based on → Bayes' theorem.
Referring to → Bayes' theorem.
Fr.: inférence bayésienne
An approach to → statistical analysis in which → unknowns to be estimated have a prior → probability distribution which combined with the information from data produces a posterior probability distribution for the target quantities.
Fr.: modèle bayésien
A mathematical framework described by the prior distribution of a random parameter and by the likelihood of the observations. In this framework, all information on the random parameter based on the observations is included in the posterior distribution which can be obtained using → Bayes' theorem (see, e.g., Andrieu et al., 2001, "An Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods for Bayesian Data Analysis," in Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistics, ed. A. I. Mees, Boston: Birkhäuser).
Bayesian model averaging (BMA)
miyângin-giri-ye Bayesi-e model
An approach to model selection in which one bases inference on an average of all possible models instead of a single best model. The BMA is largely used in various branches of knowledge to properly account for model uncertainty in performing predictions.
Fr.: phénomène Be
The episodic occurrence of abrupt → mass loss in → Be stars resulting in → Balmer lines in emission and → infrared excess. The Be phenomenon results from a combination of a long-term secular effect and short-term instabilities, such as pulsation. The secular evolution brings the star close enough to the critical → break-up velocity, so that the additional velocity field due to the instability may allow some mass ejection (Maeder 2011).
Fr.: étoile Be
B, referring to the spectral type; e for emission lines; → star.
Fr.: 1) faisceau, 2) lobe, 3) tache de diffraction
1) A collection of nearly parallel → light
→ rays or a concentrated stream of
→ particles. See also → beam of light.
M.E. beem, from O.E. beam "tree;" akin to O.H.G boum "tree," Ger. Baum.
Tâbé, from tâb; tâbidan "light; to shine" + -é noun suffix.
Fr.: efficacité de lobe
A parameter indicating the quality of an antenna as a direction measuring device. It is given by the ratio of the total received power contained in the main beam of an antenna to the total power (including the sidelobes); the same as main beam efficiency. See also → beamwidth.
beam of light
tâbe-ye nur (#)
Fr.: faisceau lumineux
beam of particles
Fr.: faisceau de particules
A narrow unidirectional flow of particles
Fr.: lame séparatrice
A partially reflecting mirror which permits a part of the light beam to pass through and reflects the rest.
→ beam; splitter, from to split, from M.Du. splitten, from P.Gmc. *spl(e)it-, PIE *(s)plei- "to split, splice."
Fâqgar, from fâq "split, breach, division" + tâbé→ beam.
Fr.: permutation de lobe
In single dish radio astronomy, any technique which forms the difference of signals received from two (or more) pointings on the sky without physically moving the main reflector of the antenna. By rapidly forming differences between sky positions that do and do not contain astronomical sources, beam switching can minimize the corruption of spectral baselines by non-idealities in the instrumental frequency response, or of continuum observations by atmospheric fluctuations.
Fr.: largeur de lobe
The angle between the two directions in the main beam at which the power response has fallen to half its maximum value. → beam efficiency.
The periodic and alternatively strengthening and weakening of two waves of similar frequencies when they interfere with one another. In particular, the soft and loud sounds created by the interference of two sound waves of similar frequencies.
M.E. beten, from O.E. beaten, from P.Gmc. *bautan; IER *bhau- "to strike."
Zaneš, noun from zan- present tense stem of zadan "to beat, strike" + -š verbal noun suffix. Zadan from Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."
Fr.: céphéide à battement
A Cepheid variable in which two or more almost identical periods of variability pass into and out of phase with each other, producing periodic amplitude fluctuations in their light curves. Beat periods are typically about 2 hours.
Fr.: fréquence de battement
One of the frequencies that results from the combination of two waves of slightly different frquencies. A beat frequency is equal to the absolute value of the difference between the two frequencies. An unknown frequency can be determined by beating it with a reference frequency. More specifically, when the two frequencies are superimposed, the phase difference will change with time and wave interference alternate between constructive and destructive. The alterations of intensity brings about a beat frequency.