# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 nonholonomic system   راژمان ِ ناهروداتیک   râžemân-e nâharudâtikFr.: système non holonomique   A mechanical system with constraints on their velocity that are not derivable from position constraints. Nonholonomic systems arise, for instance, in mechanical systems that have rolling contact (for example, the rolling of wheels without slipping) or certain kinds of sliding contact (such as the sliding of skates). They are a remarkable generalization of classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems in which one allows position constraints only.→ non-; → holonomic; → system. nonhomogeneous   ناهمگن   nâhamgen (#)Fr.: non homogène   Not homogeneous. → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation.→ non-; → homogeneous. nonhomogeneous linear differential equation   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی ناهمگن   hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti nâhamgenFr.: équation différentielle linéaire non homogène   A → linear differential equation if Q(x)≠ 0 on interval I.→ nonhomogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation. nonionized   نایونیده   nâyonidé (#)Fr.: non-ionisé   The quality of an atom that has neither lost nor gained any electrons.→ non-; → ionized. nonlinear   ناخطی   nâxatti (#)Fr.: non-linéaire   Not a linear function of the relevant variables. Containing a variable with an exponent other than one; opposite of → linear.→ non-; → linear. nonlinear device   دستگاه ِ ناخطی   dastgâh-e nâxattiFr.: dispositif non-linéaire   An electronic device whose output is not directly proportional to its input. For example, in a → diode the current is a nonlinear function of the voltage; its voltage-current characteristics do not obey → Ohm's law.→ nonlinear; → device. nonlinear dynamics   توانیک ِ ناخطی   tavânik-e nâxattiFr.: dynamique non-linéaire   Same as → chaos.→ nonlinear; → dynamics. nonlinear instability   ناپایداری ِ ناخطی   nâpâydâri-ye nâxattiFr.: instabilité non-linéaire   The instability of a physical or mathematical system that arises from the nonlinear nature of relevant variables and their interactions within the system.→ nonlinear; → instability. nonlinear system   راژمان ِ ناخطی   râžmân-e nâxattiFr.: système non-linéaire   A system in which small changes can result in large effects, and large changes in small effects.→ nonlinear; → system. nonlinearity   ناخطیگی   nâxattigiFr.: non-linéarité   The property, condition, or state of being → nonlinear.→ non-; → linearity. nonrising star   ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پنهان   setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#)Fr.:   A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole.Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star.Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden." nonsense   جفنگ   jafang (#)Fr.: non sense   Word or language having no meaning. → absurd.→ non- + → sense.Jafang "nonsense, futile." nonsetting star   ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پیدا   setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#)Fr.:   A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star.Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star.Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible. nonsingular matrix   ماتریس ِ ناتکین   mâtris-e nâtakinFr.: matrice non singulière   A → square matrix that is not a → singular matrix.→ non-; → singular; → matrix. nonthermal   ناگرمایی   nâgarmâyiFr.: non thermique   See also → non-thermal.→ non-; → thermal. nonthermal escape   گریز ِ ناگرمایی   goriz-e nâgarmâyiFr.: échappement non thermique   Same as → suprathermal escape.→ non-; → thermal; → escape. nonviscous   ناوشکسان   nâvošksânFr.: non visqueux   Fluid mechanics: Having no → viscosity. Same as → inviscid.From → non- + → viscous. noon   نیمروز   nimruz (#)Fr.: midi   The time of day when the Sun crosses the observer's meridian and is at its highest point above the horizon. At this point, the Sun lies due south of an observer in the northern hemisphere and due north of an observer in the southern hemisphere.M.E. none; O.E. non, from L. nona hora "ninth hour" of daylight by Roman reckoning, about 3 p.m.Nimruz, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Sk. néma- "half") + ruz→ day. norm   هنجار   hanjâr (#)Fr.: norme   General: A standard, model, or pattern regarded as typical. Math.: 1) The magnitude of a vector expressed as the square root of the sum of the squares of the absolute values of the components of the vector. 2) The value that has the highest frequency within a statistical range.From Fr. norme, from O.Fr., from L. norma "carpenter's square, rule, pattern," of unknown origin.Hanjâr "a straight road; way, rule, law; habit, custom; conduct; a mason's rule, a plumb-line, a level;" Mid.Pers. hanjâr "right, correct;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-cara-, *han-cara- prefixed *cara- "to move, walk" (cf. Av. car- "to move, go, walk," carāni "I would go," carāt "he would go;" Mod.Pers. caridan "to graze," gozârdan "to explain," gozâreš "explanation"); cf. Skt. samcara- "passage, way, road, path; going about, moving," from prefix sam- + cara- "moving, going, walking;" Gk. pelomai "to move;" L. colere "to till, cultivate, inhabit." Norma   گونیا   Guniyâ (#)Fr.: Règle   The Carpenter's Square. A small and inconspicuous southern constellation which lies between → Scorpius and → Centaurus. Its brightest star is only of magnitude 4.0. Abbreviation: Nor; genitive: NormaeInitially Norma et Regula, L. translation of l'Équerre et la Règle "the Set Square and the Ruler," as named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762).Guniyâ "carpenter's square," probably related to konj "angle, corner, confined place" (variants xong "corner, angle," Tabari kânj, Kurd. kunj, Hamadâni kom) and zânu "knee" (Av. žnu-), Skt. kona- "angle, corner," Gk. gonia "angle,", gony "knee," L. genu "knee," cuneus "a wedge," Albanian (Gheg dialect) kân "angle, corner," Albanian (Toks) kënd "angle, corner;" PIE base PIE base *g(e)neu-.