An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1039
Polaris
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطبی، جدی، میخ ِ گاه   
setâre-ye qotbi, jodey, mix-e gâh

Fr.: étoile polaire   

The brightest star associated with the → north celestial pole. Polaris, also called the Pole Star, is a → triple system lying at about 433 → light-years (133 → parsecs) from the Earth. It is not exactly located on the Earth → rotation axis, because an → angular distance of 42 degrees (about 1.4 lunar diameter) separates it from the true north pole. The main star, Polaris Aa (→ visual magnitude about 2), is a variable → pulsating star of type → Cepheid. It is a hot, blue F7 Ib → supergiant star having a → luminosity about 1,260 times that of the Sun. It has a mass of 5.4 Msun, a radius of 37.5 Rsun, and a → surface temperature of 6,015 K. The close companion Ab apparent magnitude 9.2) is only 0''.17 (about 18.5 → astronomical units) from Polaris A. It was discovered in 1929 through examining the spectrum of Polaris A. It orbits Aa every 29.59 years. Ab is a → main sequence star of → spectral type F6 V. It has a mass of 1.26 Msun, a radius of 1.04 Rsun, and a luminosity of 3 Lsun. The third component, Polaris B (visual magnitude 8.7), is separated from A by 18.2 arc sec, corresponding to approximately 2,400 AU. It was first noticed by William Herschel in 1780. Polaris B is a main sequence star of type F3 V with a mass 1.39 Msun, a radius 1.8 Rsun, a luminosity of 3.9 Lsun, and a surface temperature of 6,900 K. Due to the → precession of equinoxes, the direction that Earth's axis points at changes slowly with time. Hence, Polaris has not always been, nor will it always be, the Pole Star. Polaris is actually drawing closer to the pole and in 2100 it will be as close to it as it ever will come, just 27.15 arc-minutes or slightly less than the Moon's apparent diameter. It will continue its reign as the North Star for many centuries to come. Historically, around 400 B.C., during Plato's time the nearest star to the Pole star was → Kochab (β Ursae Minoris). Some 4,600 years ago, when the Egyptians constructed the Pyramids, the Pole star was → Thuban (α Draconis). In 2,000 years the star → Errai (γ Cephei) will become the Pole Star. And around the year 14,000, Earth's axis will point reasonably close to the star → Vega, the fifth brightest star in the sky.

Mod.L. short for stella polaris "the pole star," → polar.

Setâre-ye qotbi "polar star," from setâré, → star, + qotbi, → polar.
Jodey, from Ar. Judaiy.
Mix-e gâh, Mid.Pers. name of the star, literally "the nail (peg) of time/place," from mix, → nail, + gâh "time; place," → origin.

polarity
  قطبیگی   
qotbigi

Fr.: polarité   

1) Physics: The condition, in a system, of having opposite characteristics at different points, especially positive or negative with respect to electric charge or magnetic properties.
2) Chemistry: A property of a molecule caused by unsymmetrical charge distribution.

From → polar + → -ity.

polarity epoch
  زیمه‌ی ِ قطبیگی   
zime-ye qotbigi

Fr.: époque de polarité   

The time during which the Earth's magnetic field was of a single polarity; an interval of time between reversals of Earth's magnetic field.

polarity; → epoch.

polarity event
  رویداد ِ قطبیگی   
ruydâd-e qotbigi

Fr.: événement de polarité   

A specific event in the history of Earth's magnetic field. Usually used in reference to a specific → polarity reversal.

polarity; → event.

polarity reversal
  وارونش ِ قطبیگی، واگردانی ِ ~   
v âruneš-e qotbigi, vâgardâni-ye ~

Fr.: inversion de polarité   

1) A change in the → polarity of Earth's magnetic field in which the north magnetic pole becomes the south magnetic pole and vice versa. Also known as geomagnetic reversal or magnetic reversal. Earth's magnetic field has reversed many times in the past and the time intervals between these changes are known as → polarity epochs.
2) The change in the polarity of the → solar magnetic field with the ending of each → solar activity cycle so that the North magnetic pole becomes the South and vice versa.

polarity; → reversal.

polarizable
  قطبش‌پذیر   
qotbeš-pazir

Fr.: polarisable   

Able to be polarized.

polaize; → -able.

polarization
  قطبش   
qotbeš (#)

Fr.: polarisation   

1) Optics: A process or state in which the directions of the electric or magnetic fields of an → electromagnetic radiation change in a regular pattern. Light can be polarized by a variety of ways, involving the following processes: reflection, transmission, double refraction, and scattering. See also → unpolarized light; → linear polarization; → circular polarization; → elliptical polarization. The study of the polarization of light from astronomical sources can yield unique information in particular related to the properties of magnetic fields.
2) Electricity: A process or state in which the → dipole moments of → polar molecules in a → dielectric material get aligned under the action of an external electric field. Actually thin layers of bound charges with opposite signs appear on the surfaces of the dielectric.
3) Electricity: The accumulation of ions, produced during electrolysis, on the electrodes of a cell, increasing the resistance of the cell.

Verbal noun of → polarize.

polarization angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

Same as → polarizing angle and → Brewster angle.

polarization; → angle.

polarization charge
  بارِ قطبش   
bâr-e qotbeš

Fr.:   

Same as → bound charge.

polarization; → charge.

polarization degree
  درجه‌ی ِ قطبش   
daraje-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: degré de polarisation   

degree of polarization.

polarization; → degree.

polarization fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ قطبش   
barxe-ye qotbeš

Fr.: fraction de polarisation   

The ratio expressed by P = (Ipar - Iper) / (Ipar + Iper), where Ipar and Iper are the light intensities with the electric field vector respectively parallel and perpendicular to the incident beam.

polarization; → fraction.

polarize
  قطبیدن   
qotbidan (#)

Fr.: polariser   

To cause → polarization. To undergo polarization.

Infinitive of → polarization.

polarized
  قطبیده   
qotbidé (#)

Fr.: polarisé   

Of or pertaining to a medium or physical phenomenon that exhibits → polarization.

P.p. of → polarize.

polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده   
nur-e qotbidé (#)

Fr.: lumière polarisée   

Electromagnetic radiation in the optical region which has undergone → polarization.

Past participle of → polarize; → light.

polarizer
  قطبنده   
qotbandé (#)

Fr.: polariseur   

An optical device capable of transforming natural light into polarized light, usually by selective transmission of polarized rays.

Agent noun of → polarize.

polarizing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

The angle of → incidence for which the reflected light is completely polarized. Also called the → Brewster angle and → polarization angle. See also → Brewster's law.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → angle.

polarizing filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ قطبنده   
pâlâye-ye qotbandé (#)

Fr.: filtre polarisant   

A filter that polarizes light passing through it.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → filter.

polarizing prism
  منشور ِ قطبنده   
manšur-e qotbandé

Fr.: prisme polarisant   

A prism that is used to produce or analyze plane-polarized light.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → prism.

pole
  قطب   
qotb (#)

Fr.: pôle   

1) Either extremity of the axis of the Earth or of any spherical body.
2) Either of the two regions or parts of an electric battery, magnet, or the like, at which the magnetic flux density is concentrated.
3) The fixed point in a system of polar coordinates that serves as the origin.

M.E., from L. polus "end of an axis, the sky," from Gk. polos "pivot, pole," polein "move around;" from PIE base *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell;" cognate with Pers. carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart;" Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" cf. Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel" (loaned L.L. cyclus); L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "wheel."

Qotb, from Ar. quTb.

pole star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطبی   
setâre-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: étoile polaire   

A star that lies in the direction pointed to by the Earth's → rotation axis. The term usually refers to the star → Polaris, which is the current → north celestial pole star. The → south celestial pole is not associated with any bright star.

pole; → star.

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