An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1054
partâbé (#)

Fr.: projectile   

A body projected or impelled forward, as through the air.

From Mod.L. projectilis, from L. projectus, p.p. of proicere; → project.

Partâbé, from partâb "a throw, an arrow that flies far," partâbidan "to throw," from Proto-Iranian *para-tau-, from *para- "forward," → pro- + *tau- "to throw, spread, sow;" cf. Tabari tâb "throwing," tâb dəən "to throw;" Chorasmian mftw- "to perish, be destroyed, disturbed;" Ossetic aeftawyn "to throw on; to increase; to pull out."


Fr.: projection   

1) The act, process, or result of projecting.
2) The act of reproducing on a surface, by optical means, a remote image on a film, slide, etc.

Verbal noun of → project.

  فراشانگر، فراشاننده   
farâšângar, farâšânandé

Fr.: projecteur   

An apparatus for projecting an image from a film, a slide onto a screen.
A device for projecting a beam of light.

project + → -or.

kešidé (#)

Fr.: allongé   

Elongated in the direction of the polar diameter; opposed to → oblate

From L. prolatus, pt.p. of proferre "to bring forward, extend," from → pro- + → oblate.

Kešidé p.p. of Mod./Mid.Pers. kešidan, kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry," dialectal Yaqnavi xaš "to draw," Qomi xaš "streak, stria, mark," Lori kerr "line;" Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša- "furrow;" Proto-Iranian *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."

prolate spheroid
  کره‌وار ِ کشیده   
korevâr-e kešidé

Fr.: sphéroïde allongé   

An ellipsoid produced by rotating an ellipse through 360° about its major axis. → oblate spheroid.

prolate; → spheroid.

Prometeus (#)

Fr.: Prométhée   

The third closest satellite of Saturn, also known as Saturn XVI, orbiting at a distance of 139,350 km. It orbits Saturn in 0.613 days and acts as a shepherd moon to Saturn's F ring beyond it. It is irregularly shaped, 145 x 85 x 62 km. Prometheus was iscovered by S. Collins and others in 1980 from Voyager photos.

In Gk. mythology, Prometheus was a Titan who stole fire from Olympus and gave it to humankind, for which Zeus punished him horribly; son of Iapetus; brother of Atlas and Epimetheus. The name literally means "forethought," from from promethes "thinking before," from → pro- "before" + mathein "to learn," from enlargement of PIE base *men- "to think;" → idea for Pers. cognates.

prometiom (#)

Fr.: prométhium   

Artificially produced radioactive chemical element; symbol Pm, the last of the rare-earths family elements to be discovered. Atomic number 61; mass number of most stable isotope 145; melting point 1,042°C; boiling point 3,000°C.

From → Prometheus. The name promethium was preferred to prometheum because most metallic elements have names ending in ium and eum would have caused problems.

zabâné (#)

Fr.: protubérance   

A loop of hot, luminous gas in the Sun's → corona consisting of cool dense → plasma supported by magnetic fields. Prominences appear bright when seen against the cool blackness of space. When they are in silhouette against the disk they are known as → filaments. Their spectrum is dominated by lines of hydrogen, helium, and calcium. Prominences have temperatures of about 10,000 K, typical of the solar → chromosphere, and densities 100 times greater than the corona. There are → quiescent prominences and → active prominences.

From L. prominentia "a jutting out, protuberance," from prominere "jut or stand out," from → pro- "forward" + minere "to project."

Zabâné "tongue-like" (flame), from zabân "tongue; → language," + suffix .

  ۱) فرگُت؛ ۲) فرگُتیدن   
1) fargot; 2) fargotidan

Fr.: 1) promesse; 2) promettre   

1a) A declaration that something will or will not be done, given, etc., by one.
1b) An express assurance on which expectation is to be based.
2) To engage or undertake by promise; to make a promise (

M.E. promis(se), from O.Fr. promesse "promise, guarantee, assurance" and directly from L. promissum "a promise," from promittere "send forth; let go; assure beforehand, promise," from → pro- + mittere "to release; send."

Fargot, literally "word (say, saying) put forth," from far-, variant of farâ-, → pro-, + got, from gotan, gutan (as in Kurd. (Kurm.) gôtin, guhtin, (Sor.) gutin, Gilaki gutan, Shahmerzadi. -got- "to speak"), variant of goftan "to say, tell, utter," Mid.Pers. guftan; O.Pers. gaub- "to say."


Fr.: prometteur   

Showing signs of future success (

promise; → -ing.

  تند، بی‌درنگ   
tond (#), biderang (#)

Fr.: rapide, instantané, prompt   

Quick, at once or without delay.

M.E., from O.Fr. prompt, from L. promptus "brought forth, ready, quick," p.p. of promere "to bring forth," from → pro- "forward" + emere "to take."

Tond, "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe," Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through," from per- + tundere, as explained); PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat."
Biderang "without delay," from bi- negation prefix, → in-, + derang, → delay.

prompt neutrons
  نوترون‌های ِ تند   
notronhâ-ye tond (#)

Fr.: neutrons instantanés   

Neutrons emitted immediately by a nucleus undergoing fission, as opposed to → delayed neutrons, which are emitted by one of the fission products an appreciable time interval after the fission event (from a few milliseconds to a few minutes).

prompt; → neutron.

prompt supernova explosion
  اسکفت ِ تند ِ نو‌اختر، ~ بی‌درنگ ِ ~   
oskaft-e tond-e abar-now-axtar, ~ biderang-e ~

Fr.: explosion rapide de supernova   

A mechanism predicted by theoretical models of → supernova explosion in the case when the → supernova shock breaks through the outer edge of the collapsing → iron core before losing all of its energy (through → photodisintegration of the iron nuclei) and manages to expel the stellar envelope. Compare with → delayed supernova explosion.

prompt; → supernova; → explosion. See also → delay.


Fr.: pronom   

A grammatical element which replaces a noun previously mentioned.

From M.Fr. pronom, from L. pronomen, from → pro- "in place of" + nomen, → name.

Farânâm, literally "noun (put) forth (to replace)," from farâ- "forward, along, opposing, facing," → pro- + nâm, → name.


Fr.: prononcer   

1) To enunciate or articulate (sounds, words, sentences, etc.).
2) To utter or sound in a particular manner in speaking:

pro-; → announce.


Fr.: prononciation   

1) The act or result of producing the sounds of speech, including articulation, stress, and intonation, often with reference to some standard of correctness or acceptability.
2) An accepted standard of the sound and stress patterns of a syllable, word, phrase, etc.(

Verbal noun of → pronounce.


Fr.: preuve   

1) A particular piece of evidence that is sufficient to show or helps to establish a fact.
2) The establishment of the truth of anything; demonstration.
3) Math. Logic: A sequence of statements that establishes the truth of a proposition.

M.E. prove, prooff, prof, proufe, O.Fr. prueve, from L.L. proba "a proof," a back-formation from L. probare "to prove," from probus "worthy, good, upright," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from → pro- + *bhu- "to be;" cf. Pers. budan "to be," → condition.

Âvin, on the model of Ger. Beweis "proof," from weisen "to show, point out;" O.E. witan "to see." âvin "to show, see," from intensive prefix â- + vin "to see" (as in a large number of dialects), variant bin, present stem of didan "to see;" Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" Ger. weisen "to show," as above; PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

  ۱) توچیدن؛ ۲) توچاندن   
1) tucidan; 2) tucândan

Fr.: 1) se propager; 2) propager   

1) v.intr.: (of → electromagnetic waves, → compression waves, etc.) To travel through space or a physical → medium.
2) To create (an effect) at a distance, as by electromagnetic waves, compression waves, etc., traveling through space or a physical medium.

From L. propagatus, p.p. of propagare "multiply plants by layers, spread for sprouting, propagate, enlarge," from propag(es) "something set out, scion, slip," from → pro- "forth" + pag base of pangere "to fasten" + es noun suffix + -atus "-ate."

Tucidan, from several dialects: Malayeri "to scatter, disperse; to diffuse;" Lori tic "scattered, dispersed," ticene "to scatter, disperse; to diffuse;" Laki tvic "dispersed, scattered;" Aligudarzi tij "scattered, dispersed;" Borujerdi tuc "scatter," tucessan "to scatter, diffuse," tucesa "dispersed, scattered, diffused;" maybe from Proto-Ir. *tac- "to flow, run;" cf. Av. tac- "to flow, walk," Pers. tâxtan, tâzidan "to rush, to run;" Shughni (+ *ui-) vidôj, Roshani viduj "irrigation," → flow.


Fr.: propagation   

Physics: The act or process of propagating, especially the process by which a disturbance, such as the motion of electromagnetic or sound waves, is transmitted through a medium such as air or water. Linguistically related notions: → diffusion (پخش); → dispersion(پاشش); → scattering (پراکنش); → diffraction (پراش).

Verbal noun of → propagate.

propagation number
  عدد ِ توچش   
'adad-e tuceš

Fr.: nombre d'onde   

A parameter, denoted k = 2π/λ, that along with the → angular frequency, ω = 2πν, is used to express the equation of → simple harmonic motion, y = cos (ωt - kx + π/2). Same as → wave number.

propagation; → number.

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