An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1015
proportional counter
  شمارگر ِ برپارشی   
šomârgar-e barpâreši

Fr.: compteur proportionnel   

A device in which an electronic detection system receives pulses that are proportional to the number of ions formed in a gas-filled tube by ionizing radiation.

proportional; → counter.

proportionality
  برپارشیگی   
barpârešigi

Fr.: proportionalité   

Math.: A relationship bewteen two quantities such that if one quantity changes the other changes in the same proportion; denoted as y ∝ x.

proportional + → -ity.

proportionality constant
  پایای ِ برپارشیگی   
pâyâ-ye barpârešigi

Fr.: constante de proportionalité   

Math.: A → constant that converts a proportionality into an → equation. Thus the proportionality constant k converts the proportionality y ∝ x into the equation y = kx.

proportionality + → constant.

propose
  فراهلیدن   
farâhelidan

Fr.: proposer   

To offer or suggest (a matter, subject, case, etc.) for consideration, acceptance, or action (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. poposer, from → pro- "forth," + poser "put, place," → position.

Farâhelidan, from farâ-, → pro-, + helidan, heštan "to place, put" from Mid.Pers. hištan, hilidan "to let, set, leave, abandon," Parthian Mid.Pers. hyrz; O.Pers. hard- "to send forth," ava.hard- "to abandon;" Av. harəz- "to discharge, send out; to filter;" hərəzaiti "releases, shoots;" cf. Skt. srj- "to let go or fly, throw, cast, emit, put forth;" Pali sajati "to let loose, send forth."

proposition
  فراهل، گزاره   
farâhel, gozâré (#)

Fr.: proposition   

1) The act of offering or suggesting something to be considered, accepted, adopted, or done.
2) A plan or scheme proposed.
3) Logic: A statement in which something is affirmed or denied, so that it can therefore be significantly characterized as either true or false.
4) Math.: A formal statement of either a truth to be demonstrated or an operation to be performed; a theorem or a problem (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → propose.

propositional
  گزاره‌ای   
gozaare#ay (#)

Fr.: propositionnel   

Logic: Of, relating to, or in the form of a → proposition.

proposition; → -al.

propositional constant
  پایای ِ گزاره‌ای   
pâyâ-ye gozaare#ay

Fr.: constante propositionnelle   

Logic: A → propositional symbol that represents a → specific → proposition.

propositional; → constant.

propositional logic
  گوییک ِ گزاره‌ای، ~ گزاره‌ها   
guyik-e gozâre-yi, ~ gozaarehâ

Fr.: logique propositionnelle   

A branch of logic that deals with the → truth values of logical statements (→ sentences, → propositions) and uses → logical connectives to build more complex → expressions. The distinctive feature of propositional logic is that it does not deal with logical relationships and properties that involve the parts of a statement smaller than the simple statements making it up. The propositions are evaluated as → true or → false. A more expressive system is provided by the → first-order logic.

proposition; → -al; → logic.

propositional symbol
  نماد ِ گزاره‌ای   
nemâd-e gozâreyi

Fr.: symbole propositionnel   

An upper case letter, e.g. "A," "B," "C," etc. representing a → proposition. Propositional symbols are divisible into two sorts: → propositional constants and → propositional variables.

propositional; → symbol.

propositional variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ گزاره‌ای   
vartande-ye gozâre-yi

Fr.: variable propositionnel   

Logic: A → propositional symbol that represents any → proposition whatsoever.

propositional; → variable.

propulsion
  پیشرانش   
pišrâneš (#)

Fr.: propulsion   

The act or process of propelling. The state of being propelled.

Verbal noun from → propel.

prosecutor
  دادستان   
dâdsetân (#)

Fr.: procureur   

A person who institutes or conducts legal proceedings, especially in a criminal court.

M.L. prosecutor, agent noun from prosequi "follow after, accompany; chase, pursue;" from → pro- "forward" + sequi "to follow," → sequence.

Dâsetân, literally "justice obtainer," from dâd, → justice, + setân agent noun of setândan "to obtain, to take," from Mid.Pers. statan "to take, seize;" Av. (+ *fra-) frastan- "to take, convey forward;" Proto-Ir. *staHn- "to take;" cf. L. prae-stināre "to buy, fix a price" (Cheung 2007).

prospect
  ۱) فراگاس؛ ۲) فراگاسیدن   
1) farâgâs; 2) farâgâsidan

Fr.: 1) prospective; 2) prospecter   

1) The outlook for the future.
2) To explore a region for mineral deposits.

M.E. prospecte, from L. prospectus "view, outlook," from prospicere "look out on, look forward," from → pro- "forward" + specere "look at," → speculate.

Farâgâs, from farâ-, → pro-, + gâs "to look," → speculate.

prospective
  فراگاسی   
farâgâsi

Fr.: 1) en perspective; 2) éventuel   

1) Of or in the future.
2) Likely to be or become or come about.

From Fr. prospectif, from M.L. prospectivus, from L. prospect-, from prospicere, → prospect.

Adj. from farâgâs, → prospect.

prospectus
  فراگاسه   
farâgâsé

Fr.: prospectus   

A formal statement that gives details of a forthcoming event.
A printed document describing something (such as attractions or services) to clients or members.

From L. prospectus "outlook, view," → prospect.

From farâgâs, → prospect, + nuance suffix .

protactinium
  پروتکتینیوم   
protaktiniom

Fr.: protactinium   

A → radioactive → chemical element which is a malleable, shiny silver-gray metal; symbol Pa. → atomic number 91; → mass number of most stable isotope 231; → melting point greater than 1,600°C; → boiling point 4,026°C; calculated → specific gravity 15.37; → valence +4, +5. Protactinium has 24 → isotopes of which only three are found in nature. The most stable is protactinium-231 (→ half-life about 32,500 years); it is also the most common, being found in nature in all uranium ores in about the same abundance as radium. The element was discovered by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, who found one of its isotopes in 1917. It was isolated in 1934, by Aristid von Grosse.

Protactinium, literally "parent of actinium," because actinium is a decay product of protactinium, from Gk. protos "first," → proto-, + → actinium.

protected bands
  باندهای ِ نگهداریده   
bândhâ-ye negahdâridé

Fr.: bandes protégées   

Certain frequencies, not used for civil or military purposes (radio, television, communication channels, etc.), which are protected for research in radioastronomy, one such being 21 cm.

Protected p.p. of protect, from L. protectus, p.p. of protegere "protect, cover in front," from → pro- "in front" + tegere "to cover;" → band.

Bând, → band; negahdâridé p.p. of negahdâridan, variant of negahdâštan "to keep, behold, preserve, take care of," from negah, negâh "watch, care, custody, look" + (Mid.Pers. nikâh "look, glance, observation;" Proto-Iranian *ni-kas- "to look down," from ni- "down" (cf. O.Pers. ni preposition and verbal prefix "down;" Av. "down, in ,into;" Skt. ni "down," nitaram "downward;" Gk. neiothen "from below;" E. nether; O.E. niþera, neoþera "down, downward, below, beneath," from P.Gmc. *nitheraz (O.S. nithar, O.N. niðr, O.Fris. nither, Du. neder, Ger. nieder); PIE *ni- "down, below") + *kas- "to look, appear;" cf. Av. nikā-, nikāta- (in the name of the 15-th nask) "that which is observed," ākas- "to look;" Mid.Pers. âkâh, Mod.Pers. âgâh "aware, knowing;" Skt. kāś- "to become visible, appear;" Ossetic kast/kaesyn "to look") + dâridan, dâštan "to have, hold, maintain, possess" (Mid.Pers. dâštan; O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

protest
  ۱) پاخوس؛ ۲) پاخوسیدن   
1) pâxos; 2) pâxosidan

Fr.: 1) protestation; 2) protester   

1) An expression or declaration of objection, disapproval, or dissent, often in opposition to something a person is powerless to prevent or avoid.
2) To give manifest expression to objection or disapproval; remonstrate (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. protest, from preotester, and directly from L. protestari "to declare publicly, protest," from → pro- "forth, before" + testari "testify," from testis "witness."

Pâxos, literally "strike against," from pâ-, contraction of pâd- "agianst," → counter-, + xos "to strike," Gazi xos-, xus-, xûs- "to strike, throw;" Hamedani xostän, xus- "to throw", Khunsari xus- "to strike, throw," Kurd. (Sorani) xa-, (Kurmanji) xistin, xi- "to strike, beat," Qohrudi xosta "to throw," Ardestâni xoste, Shughni xust, xay-; Mid.Pers. xwas-, hws- "to trample;" Av. paiti xvanh- "to thresh;" Proto-Ir. *huah- "to strike, thresh" (Cheung 2007). ,

Protestant
  پاخوسان   
pâxosân

Fr.: protestant   

1a) (n.) An adherent of any of those Christian bodies that separated from the Church of Rome during the Reformation, or of any group descended from them.
1b) (originally) Any of the German princes who protested against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which had denounced the Reformation.
1c) (lowercase) One who makes or enters a protests.
2a) (adj.) Belonging or pertaining to Protestants or their religion.
2b) (lowercase) protesting (Dictionary.com).

From Ger. or Fr. protestant, from L. protestantem (nominative protestans), p.p. of protestari, → protest.

Pâxosân agent noun or adj. from pâxosidan, → protest.

Protestantism
  پاخوسانگرایی، پاخوسان‌باوری   
pâxosângerâyi, pâxosânbâvari

Fr.: protestantisme   

The religion of → Protestants.

protestant; → -ism.

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