An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1001
prospectus
  فراگاسه   
farâgâsé

Fr.: prospectus   

A formal statement that gives details of a forthcoming event.
A printed document describing something (such as attractions or services) to clients or members.

From L. prospectus "outlook, view," → prospect.

From farâgâs, → prospect, + nuance suffix .

protactinium
  پروتکتینیوم   
protaktiniom

Fr.: protactinium   

A → radioactive → chemical element which is a malleable, shiny silver-gray metal; symbol Pa. → atomic number 91; → mass number of most stable isotope 231; → melting point greater than 1,600°C; → boiling point 4,026°C; calculated → specific gravity 15.37; → valence +4, +5. Protactinium has 24 → isotopes of which only three are found in nature. The most stable is protactinium-231 (→ half-life about 32,500 years); it is also the most common, being found in nature in all uranium ores in about the same abundance as radium. The element was discovered by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, who found one of its isotopes in 1917. It was isolated in 1934, by Aristid von Grosse.

Protactinium, literally "parent of actinium," because actinium is a decay product of protactinium, from Gk. protos "first," → proto-, + → actinium.

protected bands
  باندهای ِ نگهداریده   
bândhâ-ye negahdâridé

Fr.: bandes protégées   

Certain frequencies, not used for civil or military purposes (radio, television, communication channels, etc.), which are protected for research in radioastronomy, one such being 21 cm.

Protected p.p. of protect, from L. protectus, p.p. of protegere "protect, cover in front," from → pro- "in front" + tegere "to cover;" → band.

Bând, → band; negahdâridé p.p. of negahdâridan, variant of negahdâštan "to keep, behold, preserve, take care of," from negah, negâh "watch, care, custody, look" + (Mid.Pers. nikâh "look, glance, observation;" Proto-Iranian *ni-kas- "to look down," from ni- "down" (cf. O.Pers. ni preposition and verbal prefix "down;" Av. "down, in ,into;" Skt. ni "down," nitaram "downward;" Gk. neiothen "from below;" E. nether; O.E. niþera, neoþera "down, downward, below, beneath," from P.Gmc. *nitheraz (O.S. nithar, O.N. niðr, O.Fris. nither, Du. neder, Ger. nieder); PIE *ni- "down, below") + *kas- "to look, appear;" cf. Av. nikā-, nikāta- (in the name of the 15-th nask) "that which is observed," ākas- "to look;" Mid.Pers. âkâh, Mod.Pers. âgâh "aware, knowing;" Skt. kāś- "to become visible, appear;" Ossetic kast/kaesyn "to look") + dâridan, dâštan "to have, hold, maintain, possess" (Mid.Pers. dâštan; O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

protest
  ۱) پاخوس؛ ۲) پاخوسیدن   
1) pâxos; 2) pâxosidan

Fr.: 1) protestation; 2) protester   

1) An expression or declaration of objection, disapproval, or dissent, often in opposition to something a person is powerless to prevent or avoid.
2) To give manifest expression to objection or disapproval; remonstrate (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. protest, from preotester, and directly from L. protestari "to declare publicly, protest," from → pro- "forth, before" + testari "testify," from testis "witness."

Pâxos, literally "strike against," from pâ-, contraction of pâd- "agianst," → counter-, + xos "to strike," Gazi xos-, xus-, xûs- "to strike, throw;" Hamedani xostän, xus- "to throw", Khunsari xus- "to strike, throw," Kurd. (Sorani) xa-, (Kurmanji) xistin, xi- "to strike, beat," Qohrudi xosta "to throw," Ardestâni xoste, Shughni xust, xay-; Mid.Pers. xwas-, hws- "to trample;" Av. paiti xvanh- "to thresh;" Proto-Ir. *huah- "to strike, thresh" (Cheung 2007). ,

Protestant
  پاخوسان   
pâxosân

Fr.: protestant   

1a) (n.) An adherent of any of those Christian bodies that separated from the Church of Rome during the Reformation, or of any group descended from them.
1b) (originally) Any of the German princes who protested against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which had denounced the Reformation.
1c) (lowercase) One who makes or enters a protests.
2a) (adj.) Belonging or pertaining to Protestants or their religion.
2b) (lowercase) protesting (Dictionary.com).

From Ger. or Fr. protestant, from L. protestantem (nominative protestans), p.p. of protestari, → protest.

Pâxosân agent noun or adj. from pâxosidan, → protest.

Protestantism
  پاخوسانگرایی، پاخوسان‌باوری   
pâxosângerâyi, pâxosânbâvari

Fr.: protestantisme   

The religion of → Protestants.

protestant; → -ism.

protestation
  پاخوسش   
pâxoseš

Fr.: protestation   

1) The act of protesting.
2) Formal expression or declaration of objection, dissent, or disapproval (Dictionary.com).

protest; → -tion.

protester
  پاخوسگر، پاخوسنده   
pâxosgar, pâxosandé

Fr.: protestataire   

A person who publicly demonstrates opposition to something. Also protestor.

protest; → -er.

protium
  پروتیوم   
protiom

Fr.: protium   

The lightest and most common → isotope of → hydrogen, with one → proton and no → neutrons; symbol 1H. See also → deuterium and → tritium.

From Gk. protos "first" + L. → -ium.

proto-
  پوروا-   
purvâ-

Fr.: proto-   

A combining form meaning "first, foremost, earliest form of," used in the formation of compound words such as → protogalaxy, → protoplanet, → protostar, etc.

From Gk. proto-, combining form of protos "first," superlative of pro "before," cognate with O.S. pruvu "first;" Rus. pervyy "first;" Av. pauruua-, as below.

Purvâ-, from O.Pers. paruviya- "former, initial," Av. pourva-, pouruuiia-, pauruua-, paoiriia- "first, initial, former;" cf. Skt. purva- "first, former, being before;" Tokharian B parwe "first;" PIE base *prwos "first."

Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
  پوروا-هند-و-ارویایی   
purvâ-hend-o-orupâyi

Fr.: proto-indoeuropéen   

The hypothetical but strongly evidenced common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. PIE words are reconstructed from extant Indo-European languages. There is no clear agreement on exactly where or when the speakers of PIE lived. It is believed that most of the subgroups diverged and spread out over much of Europe, Iran, and northern Indian subcontinent during the fourth and third millennia BC. See also → proto-language.

proto-; + Indo-, → Indus, + European, adj. of Europa, → Europa (Jupiter II).

proto-language
  پوروا-زبان   
purvâ-zabân

Fr.: proto-langue   

The hypothetical and typically extinct language which is believed to be the ancestor of a group of languages of the same family. Historical linguistics uses comparative study of the languages of a family to reconstruct the ancestral language even though in most cases it was never recorded. Some examples are → Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Germanic, Proto-Romance, Proto-Sino-Tibetan, etc.

proto-; → language.

protocluster
  پوروا-خوشه   
purvâ-xušé

Fr.: proto-amas   

A very huge mass of gas which will give rise to a cluster of galaxies.

proto-; → cluster.

protocol
  پوروا-بند، پوروابند   
purvâ-band

Fr.: protocole   

Computers: A set of rules and methods used for communication and transmission of data between different computer systems. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. Simple protocols define the behavior of a hardware connection and help with error detection of the bit stream. High level protocols deal with the data formatting, including the syntax of messages, the terminal to computer dialogue, character sets, sequencing of messages etc.

M.E. prothogall "draft of a document," from M.Fr. prothocole, from M.L. protocollum "draft," literally "the first sheet of a volume" (on which contents were written), from Gk. protokollon "first leaf glued to the rolls of papyrus describing its contents," from → proto- "first" + kolla "glue."

Purvâband from purvâ-, → proto-, + band "joint; joined," past stem of bastan "to bind; to shut; to form seed buds; to clot," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind.

protogalaxy
  پوروا-کهکشان   
purvâ-kahkešân

Fr.: proto-galaxie   

A huge mass of gas that by contraction and condensation becomes a galaxy of stars. A galaxy during the early phase, before it has developed its present shape and stellar/gas content.

proto-; → galaxy.

proton
  پروتون   
proton (#)

Fr.: proton   

A particle of the hadron family which is one of the two particles that make up atomic nuclei. It has an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit, a diameter of about 1.65 x 10-13 cm, and a mass of about 1.67 x 10-24 g (about 938 MeV c-2).

From Gk. proton, neuter of protos "first." Coined by Eng. physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937).

proton temperature
  دمای ِ پروتونی   
damâ-ye protoni

Fr.: température protonique   

The temperature in the → solar wind, as derived from the mean kinetic energy of protons: mv2/2 = (3/2)kTp, where k is → Boltzmann's constant. There are two types of proton temperature: parallel temperature, measured from protons moving parallel to the magnetic field, and perpendicular temperature relating to protons at right angles to the magnetic field. The proton temperature is usually derived using particle detectors on board space probes that determine the velocity → distribution function of the particles from their energies (N. Meyer-Vernet, 2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge Univ. Press). See also → electron temperature.

proton; → temperature.

proton-proton chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ پروتون-پروتون   
zanjire-ye proton-proton (#)

Fr.: chaîne proton-proton   

A series of → thermonuclear reactions, taking place mainly in → low-mass stars, such as the Sun, which transforms four hydrogen nuclei (protons) into one helium (4He) nucleus and thereby generates energy in the stellar core. First, two protons (1H) combine to form a → deuterium nucleus (2H) with the emission of a → positron (e+) and a → neutrino (ν): 1H + 1H → 2H + e+ + ν. The deuterium nucleus then rapidly captures another proton to form a helium-3 nucleus (3He), while emitting a → gamma ray (γ): 2H + 1H → 3He + γ. There are three alternatives for the next step. In the PP I chain, occurring in 86% of the cases, two 3He nuclei fuse to a final 4He nucleus while two protons are released: 3He + 3He → 4He + 1H + 1H. The mass of the resulting 4He nucleus is less than the total mass of the four original protons used to produce 4He (→ mass defect). The difference, ~ 0.7% of the total mass of the protons, is converted into energy and radiated by the Sun. In this process, the Sun loses some 4 million tons of its mass each second. See also → CNO cycle.

proton; → chain.

proton-proton reaction
  واژیرش ِ پروتون-پروتون   
vâžireš-e-e proton-proton

Fr.: réaction proton-proton   

A → thermonuclear reaction in which two protons collide at very high velocities and combine to form a → deuterium. See also → proton-proton chain.

proton; → reaction.

protoneutron star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پوروا-نوترونی   
setâre-ye purvâ-notroni

Fr.: proto-étoile à neutrons   

A compact, hot, and → neutrino-rich object that results from a → supernova explosion and is a transition between an → iron core and a → neutron star or → black hole. The life span of a protoneutron star is less than one minute.

proto-; → neutron; → star.

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