An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 998
probable
  شوانا   
šavânâ

Fr.: probable   

Likely to happen or to be true; likely but uncertain.

From O.Fr. probable, from L. probabilis "provable," from probare "to try, to test, to prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright, virtuous," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from *pro-, extended form of base *per- (cf. Pers. farâ "forward, front"), + base *bhu- "to be" (cf. Pers. budan "to be").

Šavânâ (on the model of tavânâ "able, strong", from tav- "to be able"), from šow- present stem of šodan "to become, to be, to be doing, to go, to pass," from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

probable error (PE)
  ایرنگ ِ شوانا   
irang-e šavânâ

Fr.: erreur probable   

A deviation from the population mean μ such that 50% of the observations may be expected to lie between μ - PE and μ + PE. For the normal distribution, the probable error is 0.6745 times the standard deviation.

probable; → error.

probe
  ۱) گمانه؛ ۲) گمانه زدن   
1) gomâné (#); 2) gomâné zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) sonde; 2) sonder   

1) (n.) An exploratory action or device for investigating and obtaining information on a remote region.
Same as → space probe. → lunar probe.
2) (v.) To conduct a thorough investigation of something.
To examine or explore with a probe.

M.L. proba "examination, test," L. probare "to test, prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright."

1) Gomâné "a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).
2) Gomâné zadan composite infinitive of gomân with zadan "to strike, beat; to play an instrument; to do" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

problem
  پراسه   
parâsé

Fr.: problème   

1) Any question or matter involving doubt, uncertainty, or difficulty.
2) Math.: A statement requiring a solution, usually by means of a mathematical operation or geometric construction.

M.E., from O.Fr. problème, from L. problema, from Gk. problema "a problem, a question," literally "thing put forward," from proballein "to propose," from → pro- "forward" + ballein "to throw," → ballistics.

Parâsé, from pərəs- present tense stem of Av. fras- "to ask, question, inquire," pərəsaiti "asks," to which is related Mod.Pers. pors-, porsidan "to ask;" Mid.Pers. pursidan; O.Pers. fraθ- "to ask, examine, investigate, punish;" Sogd. anfrāsē "question, enquiry;" cf. Skt. prasś- "to ask, long for;" Tokharian prak-/prek- "to ask;" L. prex "request," precor "to ask, to pray;" Lith. prašyti "to ask, to demand;" PIE base *prek- "to ask."

procedure
  روند   
ravand (#)

Fr.: procédure   

An act or a manner of proceeding in any action or process; a particular course or mode of action.

From Fr. procédure "manner of proceeding," from O.Fr. procédér from L. procedere "to go forward, advance," from → pro- "forward" + cedere "to go."

Ravand "going," from raftan "to go, walk;" Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack."

process
  ۱) فراروند؛ ۲) آمودن، آماییدن   
1) farâravand (#); 2) âmudan (#), âmâyidan (#)

Fr.: 1) processus; 2) traiter   

1) (n.) A series of actions directed toward a specific aim.
A series of natural occurrences that produce change or development.
2) (v.) To treat or prepare something in a series of steps or actions.

M.E., from O.Fr. proces, from L. processus "advance, progress," from p.p. stem of procedere "go forward," from → pro- "forward" + cedere "to go."

1) Farâravand, from farâ- "forward" → pro- + ravand, contraction of ravandé "goer, going," from raftan "to go, walk;" Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack."

Note: Another Pers. equivalent for process (n.), coined by the Mosâhab group on the model of the L. concept, is farâyand (فر‌آیند). This dictionary has not retained farâyand, because it is problematic and even contradictory, as first remarked by M.Sch. Adib-Soltani. The process notion denotes a forward motion, composed of two components indicating the same direction "moving forward." In contrast, farâyand implies two opposite, contrary vectors, farâ- "forward" and âyand "coming, comer," from âmadan "to come." In brief, farâyand would mean "coming in front of, before, into the presence, in advance of," while in contrast farâravand means "to go on, to proceed."

2) Âmudan, âmâyidan "to prepare, to fashion; to cause to be made;" from Proto-Iranian *ā-mā-; cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum.

processing
  آمایش   
âmâyeš

Fr.: traitement   

Performing some predefined sequence of operations on an input to produce an output. → data processing; → image processing .

Noun of the verb → process.

procession
  فراروش   
faârraveš

Fr.: procession   

The act of moving along or proceeding in orderly succession or in a formal and ceremonious manner, as a line of people, animals, vehicles, etc (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun from → process.

processor
  آماینده، آمایشگر   
âmâyandé, âmâyešgar

Fr.: processeur   

Computers: A central processing unit.
A program that translates another program into a form acceptable by the computer being used. → data processor; → microprocessor

Agent noun of the verb → process.

proclaim
  فرزوییدن   
farzuyidan

Fr.: proclamer   

1) To announce or declare in an official or formal manner.
2) To announce or declare in an open or ostentatious way (Dictionary.com).

pro-; → claim.

Procyon (α CMi)
  فراسگ   
Farâsag

Fr.: Procyon   

The brightest star in the constellation → Canis Minor. With an → apparent visual magnitude of 0.34, Procyon is the eighth brightest star in the night sky. It is actually a → binary star system, consisting of a white → main sequence star of → spectral type F5 IV-V, named Procyon A, and a faint → DA white dwarf companion, named Procyon B. The distance of the system is 11.46 → light-years and the revolution period about 40 years. Procyon A is of → solar metallicity. It has an → effective temperature of about 6600 K and a mass of 1.43 Msun. The age of the white dwarf is estimated to be 1.7 Giga years. Also called Procyon A, HR 2943, HD 61421 (see Chiavassa et al. 2012, arXiv:1201.3264 and references therein).

Procyon, literally "before the dog," referring to the mythical dog, → Canis Minor, from L. from Gk. prokyon, from → pro- "before" + kyon, kuon "dog;" cognate with Pers. sag, as below.

Farâsag, from farâ- "before," → pro-, + sag "dog;" Mid.Pers. sak/sag Av. spā-; cf. Skt. svā-; Gk. kuon; L. canis (Fr. chien); Arm. šun; O.E. hund; O.H.G. hunt; O.Ir. cu; Welsh ci; Rus. sobaka; PIE *kwon-. In several Pers. dialects this term has conserved its older Av. form with respect to its Modern "official" counterpart: Tâleši, Tâti: espa; štiyâni: esb; Kâšâni, Sorxeyi: esbâ; Lâsgardi: aesbae.

product
  ۱، ۲) فر‌آورده؛ ۳) فر‌آورد   
1, 2) farâvardé; 3) farâvard

Fr.: produit   

1) A thing that is made or created (by a person, machine, or natural process).
2) Chemistry: A substance resulting from a chemical reaction.
3) Math.: The result of the → multiplication of two or more quantities.

From M.E., from L. productum "something produced," noun use of neuter p.p. of producere "bring forth," → production.

Farâvardé, farâvard, p.p. of farâvardan "to produce;" → production.

production
  فر‌آورش   
farâvareš (#)

Fr.: production   

The act of producing; creation; something that is produced; a product. → pair production

M.E., from O.Fr. production, from M.L. productionem, from L. productus, p.p. of producere "bring forth," from → pro- "forth" + ducere "to bring, lead."

Farâvareš "bringing forth," from far- "forth," → pro-, + âvareš, "bringing," verbal noun âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

profession
  پیشه   
pišé (#)

Fr.: profession   

An occupation, especially one that requires prolonged training and a formal qualification.

From M.E., from O.Fr. profession, from L. professionem "public declaration," from professus "having declared publicly," ultimately from → pro- "forth" + fateri "to acknowledge, confess."

Pišé "profession, job," from Mid.Pers. pêšak "profession, job, work; class, group;" Av. pištra- "occupation; class, group," from paēs- "to paint; to adorn," paēsa- "adornment;" Mid.Pers. pēsīdan "to adorn;" O.Pers. pais- "to adorn, cut, engrave;" Mid.Pers. bišt-, bis- (nibištan, nibes- "to write"), Mod.Pers -vis, -veš (in nevis-, neveštan "to write"), pisé "variegated;" cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled."

professional
  پیشه‌کار   
pišekâr (#)

Fr.: professionnel   

Relating to or belonging to a profession.

Pišekâr literally "doing as profession," from pišé, → profession, + kâr "work," from kar-, kardan "to do, to make," → -or.

profession; → -al.

professional astronomer
  اخترشناس ِ پیشه‌کار   
axtaršenâs-e pišekâr (#)

Fr.: astronome professionnel   

A person who practices astronomy as a profession rather than as a hobby, in contrast to an → amateur astronomer.

professional; → astronomer.

professor
  استاد   
ostâd (#)

Fr.: professeur   

1) A teacher of the highest academic rank in a college or university.
2) An instructor in some art or skilled sport, such as a professor of singing.

M.E. from L. professor "one who has taken the vows of a religious order," agent noun from profitieri "declare openly," from → pro- "forth" + fateri "to acknowledge, confess."

Ostâd "professor; master; artisan," from Mid.Pers. ôstât, from Av. *aibi-stāta-, *auui-stāta- literally "standing on," i.e. "appointed; agent; head," from aibi-/auui- "upon, toward, against" (O.Pers. abiy-; cf. Skt. abhi-; Gk. amphi-) + stā- "to stand" (→ opposition).

profile
  فراپال   
farâpâl

Fr.: profil   

A graph or drawing that shows the variation of one property (such as intensity), usually as ordinate, with respect to another property (such as wavelength). → line profile.

From It. profilo "a drawing in outline," from profilare "to draw in outline," from → pro- "forth" + filare "draw out, spin," from L.L. filare "to spin, draw out a line," from filum "thread," cognate with Pers. zeh "cord, string," → filament.

Farâpâl, from farâ-, → pro-, + pâl "thread, string," probably cognate with L. filum, as above.

profile fitting method
  روش ِ سزکرد ِ فراپال   
raveš-e sazkard-e farâpâl

Fr.: méthode de l'ajustement de profils   

A method of analysis in which the observed stellar image profiles or spectral line profiles are fitted by model profiles in order to study and derive some properties of the object.

profile; → fitting; → method.

progenitor
  زادار   
zâdâr

Fr.: progéniteur   

The originator of a line of descent; a precursor.

M.E., from O.Fr. progeniteur, from L. progenitorem "ancestor," agent noun from progenitus, p.p. of progignere "beget," from → pro- "forth" + gignere "to produce, beget," cognate with Pers. zâdan, as below.

Agent noun from zâdan "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," janitár "progenitor, father;" Gk. genetor "progenitor;" L. gignere "to beget," nasci "to be born," as above, PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

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