An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1026
principle of relativistic causality
  پروز ِ بنارمندی ِ باز‌آنیگی‌مند   
parvaz-e bonârmandi-ye bâzânigi-mand

Fr.: principe de la causalité relativiste   

One consequence of the theory of → special relativity, according to which no two events separated by a distance greater than their separation in time multiplied by the → speed of light may have a → causal influence on each other. Violation of this principle leads to → paradoxes, such as that of an → effect preceding its → cause.

principle; → relativistic; → causality.

principle of relativity
  پروز ِ بازانیگی   
parvaz-e bâzânigi

Fr.: principe de relativité   

The first postulate in Einstein's theory of → special relativity whereby all the laws of physics are the same in every → inertial reference frame. In other words, no physical measurement can distinguish one inertial reference frame from another. See also → principle of constancy.

principle; → relativity.

  ۱) چاپ؛ ۲) چاپ‌کردن   
1) câp; 2) câp kardan

Fr.: 1) impression, empreinte, imprimé; 2) imprimer   

1a) The state of being printed.
1b) Printed lettering, especially with reference to character, style, or size.
1c) Printed material; a printed publication, as a newspaper or magazine.
2a) To produce (a text, picture, etc.) by applying inked types, plates, blocks, or the like, to paper or other material either by direct pressure or indirectly by offsetting an image onto an intermediate roller.
2b) To reproduce (a design or pattern) by engraving on a plate or block.
2c) To form a design or pattern upon, as by stamping with an engraved plate or block.
2d) To cause (a manuscript, text, etc.) to be published in print (

M.E. prent(e), print(e), prient(e), from OF priente "impression," noun use of feminine p.p. of preindre "to press," from L. premere "to press, hold fast."

Câp "press," loan from Indo-Aryan languages chapa, chháp, chāp "seal, stamp, impression."


Fr.: imprimante, imprimeur   

1) A person or thing that prints, especially a person whose occupation is printing.
2) Computers: An output device that produces a paper copy of alphanumeric or graphic data (

print; → -er.

printer font
  ریختار ِ چاپگر   
rixtâr-e câpgar

Fr.: fonte d'imprimante   

A font used for printing. See also → screen font.

printer; → font.


Fr.: précédent, antérieur   

1) Preceding in time or in order; earlier or former; previous.
2) Preceding in importance or privilege.

O.E., from M.L. prior "former, previous, first, superior," comparative of O.L. pri "before," from PIE *prai-, *prei-, from root *per- "forward, through," → pro-.

Parin, from pra-, fra- "before, forward, forth," cognate with Gk. and L. → pro-.


Fr.: priorité   

The condition or quality of being earlier in time or occurrence, or being regarded as more important.

prior; → -ity.

manšur (#)

Fr.: prisme   

Optics: A transparent solid body, having at least two polished plane faces inclined relative to each other, from which light is reflected or through which light is refracted.
Geometry: A solid having two faces lying in parallel planes and with the other faces parallelograms.

L.L. prisma, from Gk. prisma, literally "something sawed," from prizein "to saw."

Manšur, etymology not clear, may be related to Ar. mawšur "prism," of unknown origin.

prism angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ منشور   
zâviye-ye manšur

Fr.: angle de prisme   

The angle between the faces on which light is incident and from which it emerges.

prism; → angle.

prism binoculars
  دوچشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   
docešmi-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdâr

Fr.: jumelles à prismes   

An optical device consisting of a pair of small telescopes mounted side by side, each telescope having two prisms between the eyepiece and objective for erecting the image.

prism; → binoculars.

prism ocular
  چشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   
caši-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdâr

Fr.: prisme oculaire   

An ocular equipped with a prism that forms an upright image in an astronomical telescope.

prism; → ocular.

prismatic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ منشوری   
ostorlâb-e manšuri

Fr.: astrolabe à prisme   

An instrument used to determine the precise timing of a star's passage across a vertical circle. It is used for making precise determinations of the positions of stars and planets, and can be used inversely to determine the latitude and longitude of the observer, assuming the star positions are accurately known. It consists of an accurate prism, a small pool of mercury to serve as an artificial horizon. The most notable example of this type of instrument is that of → Danjon astrolabe.

Adj. of → prism + → astrolabe.

prismatic spectrum
  بیناب ِ منشوری   
binâb-e manšuri

Fr.: spectre prismatique   

The spectrum formed by a dispersing prism or a dispersing prism system.

Adj. of → prism + → spectrum.


Fr.: intimité   

The state of being private.

Noun from → private.


Fr.: privé   

Pertaining to or affecting a particular person or a small group of persons; individual; → personal (

L. privatus "set apart, peculiar, personal," used in contrast to publicus, p.p. of privare "to separate, deprive, to rob" from privus "one's own, individual."

Vâvan, literally "separated, not bound," from vâ- separation prefix, → de-, + van, contraction of vand, band, from vastan, bastan "to bind, fasten, close," → band.


Fr.: privatisation   

The transfer from public to private ownership.

private; → -tion.


Fr.: privatiser   

To transfer from public to private ownership and control.

private; → -ize.


Fr.: privilège   

A special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group (

M.E., from O.Fr. privilege "right, priority, privilege" and directly from L. privilegium "law applying to one person, bill of law in favor of or against an individual," from privus "individual," → private.

Fardâré, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," → perfect, + dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, possess," → property, + noun/relation suffix .


Fr.: privilégié   

Having special rights, advantages, or immunities.

Adjective from → privilege.

farâ- (#)

Fr.: pro-   

A prefix of priority in space or time having especially a meaning of advancing or projecting forward or outward.

From L. pro "in favor of, in place of, before, for," also in some cases from cognate Gk. pro "before, in front of," both from PIE base *por- "forward, through;" cf. Pers. farâ-, as below; Gk. para- "from beside, against, beyond;" Goth. faura "before," O.E. fore "before, for, on account of."

Farâ- "forward, along; above, upon, over; before, foremost, opposing, facing," variant far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," from Mid.Pers. fra-; O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; before; excessive" (fratəma- "first, front," pouruua- "first," fra-cara- "preceding"); cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron," prathama- "earliest, initial," pūrva- "first;" Gk. pro; L. pro, as above.

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