An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1015

Fr.: prédateur   

1) Of, or relating to a predator.
2) Living by preying on other living animals.

Agent noun from → prey.

  ۱) فراسن؛ ۲) فراسندن   
1) farâsan; 2) farâsandan

Fr.: prédicat   

1a) Grammar: The part of a → sentence or → clause stating something about the → subject and usually consisting of a → verb. For example, in the sentence "The man opened the door," the subject is "the man" and the predicate is "opened the door."
1b) Logic: Something which is affirmed or denied concerning the subject in a → proposition.

1c) Math.: A → function whose values are statements about n-tuples of objects forming the values of its → arguments. For n =1 a predicate is called a "property" , for n> 1 a → relation; propositions may be regarded as zero-place predicates (
2a) To state, affirm, or assert (something) about the subject of a proposition.
2b) To make (a term, expression, etc.) the predicate of a proposition.

M.E., from M.Fr. predicat, from L. praedicatus "declared, proclaimed," p.p. of praedicare, from prae "beforehand," → pre-, + dicare "proclame," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say," from PIE root *deik- "to point out, to show," cognate with Pers. dis, → form, and andišidan, → think.

Farâsan from farâ- "before; toward, along; above, upon, over," → pro-, + san Proto-Ir. *sanh- "to declare, explain," related to soxan, → speech and pâsox, → response, sahân, → sentence.

predicate logic
  گوییک ِ فراسنی، ~ فراسنها   
guyik-e farâsani, ~ farâsanhâ

Fr.: logique des prédicats   

The generic term for systems of → formal logic like → first-order logic and → second-order logic. Predicate logic contains → variables which can be quantified (→ quantify, → quantification).

predicate; → logic.

predicate symbol
  نماد ِ فراسن   
nemâd-e farâsan

Fr.: symbole de prédicat   

In a → formal language, a letter used to describe a → predicate or → relation. Also called → relation symbol.

predicate; → symbol.

pišvand (#)

Fr.: préfixe   

An → affix that is placed before a base to denote a modified meaning or make another word.

pre-; → affix.


Fr.: préflash   

Carefully chosen uniform exposure of a detector. For CCD this can be used to overcome the deferred charge phenomenon; in photography this helps bring dim images to a comfortably high density.

pre- + → flash.


Fr.: préliminaire   

Preceding and leading up to the main part, matter, or business; introductory; preparatory (

From Fr. préliminaire, from M.L. praeliminaris, from L. prae- "before," → pre-, + limen "threshold."

Pišâstâni, literally "before the threshold," from piš, → pre-, + âstâni, of or pertaining to âstân, → threshold.


Fr.: prémisse   

Logic: An initial → proposition or statement that is known or assumed to be → true and on which a logical → argument is based.

From M.E. premiss, from O.Fr. premisse, from M.L. premissa (propositio) "(the proposition) set before," feminine p.p. of L. praemittere "send or put before," from prae "before," → pre-, + mittere "to send," → mission.

Pišpâyé, from piš-, → pre-, + pâyé, → base.


Fr.: préon   

In → particle physics, any of postulated "point-like" particles from which are composed → quarks and → leptons. In other words, preon models assume there is a more fundamental kind of particle than those so far known. Different preon models consider different numbers and different natures of the preons.

Coined by Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam in 1974, from → pre- + → -on.

preplanetary nebula (PPN)
  پیش-میغ ِ سیاره‌ای   
piš-miq-e sayyâre-yi

Fr.: pré-nebuleuse planétaire   

A short-lived transition object between the → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and → planetary nebula phases. See also → post-asymptotic giant branch star (post-AGB).

pre-; → planetary; → nebula. The more commonly used term, → protoplanetary nebula, is a misnomer and must be avoided. Indeed → protoplanetary is widely used to refer to disks around → pre-main sequence stars. Since the term → protoplanet is used to denote planets undergoing formation, the use of the term "protoplanetary nebula" to mean a completely different kind of object is an unfortunate choice (Sahai et al. 2005, ApJ 620, 948).


Fr.: préposition   

A word used with a noun or pronoun to mark its relation with another word.

From L. praepositionem "a putting before," from praepositus, p.p. of praeponere "put before," from prae "before," → pre-, + ponere "put, set, place," → position.

Pišhel, from piš-, "before," → pre-, + hel-, helidan, heštan "to place, put," → leap.


Fr.: pré-publication   

An advance printing, usually of an article in a periodical.

pre-; → print.


Fr.: préscientifique   

Relating to a stage or time prior to the rise of modern science and to the application of the → scientific method.

pre-; → scientific.

  پیش‌وشتن، پیش‌ویسیدن   
pišveštan, pišvisidan

Fr.: prescrire   

1) To lay down, in writing or otherwise, as a rule or a course of action to be followed; appoint, ordain, or enjoin.
2) Medicine: To designate or order the use of a medicine, remedy, treatment, etc. (

pre-; + scribe, → describe.

  پیش‌وشت، پیش‌ویس   
pišvešt, pišvis

Fr.: prescription, ordonnance   

1) An act of prescribing.
2) A direction, usually written, by the physician to the pharmacist for the preparation and use of a medicine or remedy. The medicine prescribed (

Verbal noun of → prescribe; → -tion.

  پیش‌وشتی، پیش‌ویسنده   
pišvešti, pišvisandé

Fr.: normatif   

1) That prescribes; giving directions or injunctions.
2) Depending on or arising from effective legal prescription, as a right or title established by a long unchallenged tenure (

prescribe; → -ive.


Fr.: présence   

The state or fact of being present.

Noun from → present.

  ۱) پیشاست، باشنده؛ ۲، ۳) پیشاست، کنون، کنونی   
1) pišâst, bâšandé; 2, 3) pišâst, konun, konuni

Fr.: présent   

1) Being, existing, or occurring at this time or now.
2) At this time; at hand; immediate.
3) Grammar: Noting an action or state occurring at the moment of speaking.

M.E., from O.Fr. present, from L. præsentem (nominative præsens) "present, immediate," from pr.p. of præesse "to be before, to be at hand," from præ- "before," → pre-, + esse "to be;" cf. Pers. ast "is," hastan, astan "to be;" O.P. ah- "to be," astiy "is;" Av. ah- "to be," astī "is;" Skt. as- "to be," ásti "is;" Gk. esti "is;" PIE base es- "to be."

Pišâst, on the model of L. præesse, as above, from piš, → pre-, + epenthetic -â- + ast "is," variants hast, hi, has (Qâyen), isâ (Rašt), a (Aftar), heye (Kurd.); Av./O.Pers. ah- "to be," Proto-Ir. *Hah- "to be," → existence.
Bâšandé agent noun from budan "to be;" → condition.
Konuni "presently," from konun, aknun "now, present," from *hak-nun, from *hak-, cf. Av. hakat- "at once, immediately" + nū- "now" (Mid/Mod.Pers. nun "now, at present"); Av. nūrəm "now;" O.Pers. nūram "now;" Skt. nú- "now, just, but," nūnám "now, at present, indeed;" Gk. nun "now;" L. nu- "now" (in nu-dis "the day after tomorrow"); Goth. nu "now;" O.E. nu; E. now; PIE base *nu- "now."

present participle
  پارگرته‌ی ِ کنون   
pârgerte-ye konun

Fr.: participe présent   

A → participle that indicates an ongoing action or state in the present.

present; → participle.

present-day mass function (PDMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ کنونی   
karyâ-ye jerm-e konuni

Fr.: fonction de masse actuelle   

The present number of stars on the → main sequence per unit logarithmic mass interval per square parsec. The PDMF is the basis for deriving the → initial mass function (IMF). This mass function is not corrected for stellar evolution nor losses through stellar deaths.

present; → day; → mass; → function.

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