An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1026
precisely
  پرسونانه   
parsunâné

Fr.: précisement   

In a precise manner.

precise; → -ly.

preciseness
  پرسونی   
parsuni

Fr.: précision   

The quality or state of being very accurate.

precise; → -ness.

precision
  پرسونش   
parsuneš

Fr.: précision   

1) The state or quality of being → precise.
2) The degree to which repeated measurements of a quantity give the same results under unchanged conditions. Not the same as → accuracy, but often confused as such. See → accuracy for the difference between precision and accuracy.

Verbal noun from → precise.

precursor
  پیشگام   
pišgâm (#)

Fr.: précurseur   

1) A person or thing that comes before another of the same kind; a forerunner.
2) A substance from which another is formed, especially by metabolic reaction (OxforddDctionaries.com)

M.E., from L. præcursor "forerunner," from præcursus, p.p. of præcurrere, from præ- "before," → pre-, + currere "to run," → current.

Pišgâm, from piš- "before," → pre-, + gâm "step, pace," → stage.

precursor pulse
  تپ ِ پیشگام   
tap-e pišgâm

Fr.: pulse précurseur   

A component of a → pulsar pulse that appears shortly in advance of the main pulse.

precursor; → pulse.

predation
  چَوِش   
caveš

Fr.: prédation   

1) Act of plundering or robbing; predatory behavior.
2) The preying of one animal on others.

Verbal noun, → prey.

predator
  چَوَنده   
cavandé

Fr.: prédateur   

Zoology: Any organism that exists by preying upon other organisms (Dictionary.com).

Agent noun from → prey.

predatory
  چَوَنده   
cavandé

Fr.: prédateur   

1) Of, or relating to a predator.
2) Living by preying on other living animals.

Agent noun from → prey.

predicate
  ۱) فراسن؛ ۲) فراسندن   
1) farâsan; 2) farâsandan

Fr.: prédicat   

1a) Grammar: The part of a → sentence or → clause stating something about the → subject and usually consisting of a → verb. For example, in the sentence "The man opened the door," the subject is "the man" and the predicate is "opened the door."
1b) Logic: Something which is affirmed or denied concerning the subject in a → proposition.

1c) Math.: A → function whose values are statements about n-tuples of objects forming the values of its → arguments. For n =1 a predicate is called a "property" , for n> 1 a → relation; propositions may be regarded as zero-place predicates (encyclopediaofmath.org).
2a) To state, affirm, or assert (something) about the subject of a proposition.
2b) To make (a term, expression, etc.) the predicate of a proposition.

M.E., from M.Fr. predicat, from L. praedicatus "declared, proclaimed," p.p. of praedicare, from prae "beforehand," → pre-, + dicare "proclame," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say," from PIE root *deik- "to point out, to show," cognate with Pers. dis, → form, and andišidan, → think.

Farâsan from farâ- "before; toward, along; above, upon, over," → pro-, + san Proto-Ir. *sanh- "to declare, explain," related to soxan, → speech and pâsox, → response, sahân, → sentence.

predicate logic
  گوییک ِ فراسنی، ~ فراسنها   
guyik-e farâsani, ~ farâsanhâ

Fr.: logique des prédicats   

The generic term for systems of → formal logic like → first-order logic and → second-order logic. Predicate logic contains → variables which can be quantified (→ quantify, → quantification).

predicate; → logic.

predicate symbol
  نماد ِ فراسن   
nemâd-e farâsan

Fr.: symbole de prédicat   

In a → formal language, a letter used to describe a → predicate or → relation. Also called → relation symbol.

predicate; → symbol.

prefer
  بهزونیدن   
behzunidan

Fr.: préférer   

To like better or value more highly.

M.E. preferre, from O.Fr. preferer and directly from L. praeferre "to place or set before, carry in front," from prae "before," → pre-, + ferre "to carry, to bear," from PIE root *bher- "to carry;" cf. Pers. bordan "to carry, bear," → refer.

Behzunidan, literally "to value highly, to consider better," from beh "good, fine," → optimum, + zun, variant of dân-, dânestan "to know, consider," cf. Tâti zun/zund "to know," Khunsâri zûn-/zûnâ, Mahallâti zôn-, Semnâni -zûn-, Hamedâni zunayän/zun- , Esfahâni zunän/zun-, Yarandi zônâj-/zôn-, Gazi zûn-/zûnâšt; Av. zān- "to know," → science.

preferable
  بهزونیدنی   
behzunidani

Fr.: préférable   

Worthy to be preferred; more desirable.

prefer; → -able.

preference
  بهزونه   
behzuné

Fr.: préférence   

1) Act of → preferring.
2) That which is preferred.

prefer; → -ence.

prefix
  پیشوند   
pišvand (#)

Fr.: préfixe   

An → affix that is placed before a base to denote a modified meaning or make another word.

pre-; → affix.

preflash
  پیش‌درخش   
pišderaxš

Fr.: préflash   

Carefully chosen uniform exposure of a detector. For CCD this can be used to overcome the deferred charge phenomenon; in photography this helps bring dim images to a comfortably high density.

pre- + → flash.

preliminary
  پیشاستانی   
pišâstâni

Fr.: préliminaire   

Preceding and leading up to the main part, matter, or business; introductory; preparatory (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. préliminaire, from M.L. praeliminaris, from L. prae- "before," → pre-, + limen "threshold."

Pišâstâni, literally "before the threshold," from piš, → pre-, + âstâni, of or pertaining to âstân, → threshold.

premise
  پیشپایه   
pišpâyé

Fr.: prémisse   

Logic: An initial → proposition or statement that is known or assumed to be → true and on which a logical → argument is based.

From M.E. premiss, from O.Fr. premisse, from M.L. premissa (propositio) "(the proposition) set before," feminine p.p. of L. praemittere "send or put before," from prae "before," → pre-, + mittere "to send," → mission.

Pišpâyé, from piš-, → pre-, + pâyé, → base.

preon
  پرءون   
preon

Fr.: préon   

In → particle physics, any of postulated "point-like" particles from which are composed → quarks and → leptons. In other words, preon models assume there is a more fundamental kind of particle than those so far known. Different preon models consider different numbers and different natures of the preons.

Coined by Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam in 1974, from → pre- + → -on.

preplanetary nebula (PPN)
  پیش-میغ ِ سیاره‌ای   
piš-miq-e sayyâre-yi

Fr.: pré-nebuleuse planétaire   

A short-lived transition object between the → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and → planetary nebula phases. See also → post-asymptotic giant branch star (post-AGB).

pre-; → planetary; → nebula. The more commonly used term, → protoplanetary nebula, is a misnomer and must be avoided. Indeed → protoplanetary is widely used to refer to disks around → pre-main sequence stars. Since the term → protoplanet is used to denote planets undergoing formation, the use of the term "protoplanetary nebula" to mean a completely different kind of object is an unfortunate choice (Sahai et al. 2005, ApJ 620, 948).

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