An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1026
Pauli exclusion principle
  پروز ِ سکلان ِ پاؤلی   
parvaz-e sokolân-e Pauli

Fr.: principe d'exclusion de Pauli   

A quantum mechanical principle according to which no two identical → fermions can share the same → quantum state. Also known as → exclusion principle.

In honor of Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958), Austrian theoretical physicist, who formulated the principle in 1925; → exclusion; → principle.

Pavo
  تاووس، طاووس   
Tâvus (#)

Fr.: Paon   

The Peacock. A → constellation in the → southern hemisphere, at about 19h 30m → right ascension, 65° south → declination. Abbreviation: Pav; genitive: Pavonis.

From L. pavo "peacock;" paupulo "peacock's sound;" Gk. taos "peacock;"

Tâvus, from Ar., ultimately from Gk. taos "peacock."

peak
  ستیغ   
setiq (#)

Fr.: pic   

The pointed top of a mountain or ridge. The pointed top of anything. → Gamow peak; → peak wavelength.

Perhaps from M.L.G. pék "pick, pike."

Setiq "summit, top," from *us-tig, from us-, → ex-, + tig "pointed," related to tiq "blade," tiz "sharp," tež, tej, tij; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians)," Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.

peak luminosity
  تابندگی ِ ستیغ   
tâbandegi-ye setiq

Fr.: luminosité du pic   

The → bolometric luminosity of a → supernova corresponding to the highest brightness in its → light curve. The peak luminosity occurs after the → supernova explosion; it is directly linked to the amount of radioactive 56Ni produced in the explosion and can be used to test various explosion models. Following → Arnett's rule, one can derive the 56Ni mass from the peak luminosity of a → Type Ia supernova.

peak; → luminosity.

peak wavelength
  موج-طول ِ ستیغ   
mowj-tul-e setiq

Fr.: longueur d'onde pic   

The wavelength at which the radiant intensity of a source is maximum.

peak; → wavelength.

peanut
  بادام‌زمینی   
bâdâm-zamini (#)

Fr.: cacahuète, arachide   

The pod or the enclosed edible seed of the plant, Arachis hypogaea, of the legume family: the pod is forced underground in growing, where it ripens (Dictionary.com). → box-peanut bulge.

From pea, → green pea galaxy + nut O.E. hnutu, akin to L. nux, → nucleus.

pearl
  مروارید   
morvârid (#)

Fr.: perle   

A secretion consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, produced by various mollusks.

M.E. perle, from O.Fr. perle, M.L. perla of unknown origin.

Morvârid "pearl;" Mid.Pers. murwârid, murgârid; cf. Sogd. marγārit, marrγārt; Khotanese mrāhe. Gk. margarites "pearl" may be a loanword from Iranian.

peat
  تورب   
turb (#)

Fr.: tourbe   

A partially carbonized vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and used as fertilizer and fuel.

M.E. pete, of unknown origin.

Turb, from Fr. tourbe, from Germanic turba; cf. O.Fris. turf, O.H.G. zurba, Ger. Torf, O.E. turf, tyrf "slab of soil and grass," E. turf.

peculiar
  اَفد   
afd

Fr.: particulier   

In astronomy, designating an object with special properties that deviates from others of its type. Linguistically related terms: → particular; → special = vižé (ویژه).

From L. peculiaris "of one's own (property)," from peculium "private property," from pecu "flock, farm animals, cattle," pecunia "money, property;" cf. Av. pasu-, fšu- "sheep;" Mid.Pers. pâh, pasvīk "cattle;" Mid./Mod.Pers. šu/ša in šupân/šabân "cattle keeper, shepherd;" Pers. dialects Laki and Tâti pas "sheep;" Skt. paśu- "cattle;" Goth. faihu "money, fortune;" O.E. feoh "cattle, money;" Ger. Vieh "cattle;" Lith. pekus "cattle;" PIE base *peku- "cattle."

Afd "peculiar; strange" (Dehxodâ), from Mid.Pers. afd, awd "peculiar, strange."

peculiar galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَفد   
kahkešân-e afd

Fr.: galaxie particulière   

An irregular galaxy that has an abnormal shape (neither elliptical, spiral, nor lenticular) and/or has another unusual characteristic.

peculiar; → galaxy.

peculiar motion
  جنبش ِ اَفد   
jonbeš-e afd

Fr.: mouvement particulier   

1) The true motion of a star with respect to the Local Standard of Rest. → proper motion.
2) The motion of a cosmological object other than the apparent recession caused by the expansion of the Universe.

peculiar; → motion.

peculiar star
  ستاره‌ی ِ اَفد   
setâre-ye afd

Fr.: étoile particulière   

A star with a spectrum that cannot be conveniently fitted into any of the standard → spectral classifications.

peculiar; → star.

peculiar velocity
  تندا‌ی ِ اَفد   
tondâ-ye afd

Fr.: vitesse particulière   

1) Velocity with respect to the Local Standard of Rest.
2) Any velocity a galaxy has with respect to us that is not a Hubble law velocity due to the expansion of space.

peculiar; → velocity.

peculiarity
  اَفدی   
afdi

Fr.: particularité   

The quality or condition of being peculiar.

Noun form of → peculiar.

Pegasus
  پگاسوس، اسب ِ بالدار   
Pegâsus (#), asb-e bâldâr (#)

Fr.: Pégase   

The Winged Horse. A large constellation in the northern hemisphere at 22h 50m right ascension, 20° north declination. The stars → Markab, → Scheat, and → Algenib form three corners of the famous Great → Square of Pegasus, which is completed by the star → Alpheratz from neighboring → Andromeda. Abbreviation: Peg; Genitive: Pegasi.

In Gk. mythology, Pegasus is the winged horse that was fathered by Poseidon with Medusa. When the head of Medusa was cut off by Perseus, the horse sprang forth from her pregnant body. Pegasus aided Perseus in his fight against both the Chimera and the Amazons.

Pegâsus, from Gk., as above; asb-e bâldâr "Winged Horse," referring to the Gk. mythology, from asbhorse; bâl, → wing; dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

pejorate
  پستاردن   
pastârdan

Fr.: péjorer   

To make worse; to cause to deteriorate. To endow (a word) with a less favorable meaning.

Back formation from → pejorative.

Pastârdan, literally "to render low, vile, bring down" from past "low, vile, abject," → platykurtic, + ârdan, short for âvardan, "to cause or produce; to bring," → cause.

pejoration
  پستارش   
pastâeš

Fr.: péjoration   

1) Depreciation; a lessening in worth, quality, etc.
2) Semantic change in a word to a lower, less approved, or less respectable meaning.

Verbal noun of → pejorate.

pejorative
  پستار، پستارنده   
pastâr, pastaarandé

Fr.: péjoratif   

1) Having negative connotations; tending to disparage or belittle.
2) A pejorative word, expression, etc.

From Fr. péjoratif, from L.L. peiorat-, p.p. stem of peiorare "make worse," from L. peior "worse," related to pessimus "worst," pessum "downward, to the ground," from PIE *ped-yos-, comparative of root *ped- "to walk, stumble, impair," → foot.

Pastârandé agent noun from pastârdan, → pejorate.

Pelican Nebula
  میغ ِ پلیکان   
miq-e pelikân

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Pélican   

An → H II region, also known as IC 5067 and IC 5070, about 2,000 → light-years away in the constellation → Cygnus. It is part of a much larger, complex star-forming region also containing the larger and bright → North America Nebula.

So named because of its resemblance to a pelican on long exposure images. M.E. pellican; O.E. pellicane, from L.L. pelecanus, from Gk. pelekan "pelican:" → nebula.

Peltier effect
  اسکر ِ پلتیه   
oskar-e Peltier

Fr.: effet Peletier   

When an electric current is sent through the junction between two different conductors or semiconductors, a quantity of heat is liberated or absorbed, depending on the direction of the current. The heat is proportional to the total electric charge crossing the junction. This effect is due to the existence of an electromotive force at the junction.

Named after Jean-Charles Peltier (1785-1845), French physicist and watchmaker, who discovered the effect in 1834; → effect.

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