An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 998

Fr.: praxis   

1) The practice and practical side of knowledge or skills, as opposed to the → theory.
2) Accepted practice or custom.

M.L. praxis "practice, action," from Gk. praxis "practice, action, doing," from stem of prassein "to do, to act."

Varzidâr, from varzid past stem of varzidan, → practice, + -âr prefix forming nouns of action, such as kerdâr, raftâr, didâr, goftâr, jostâr, etc.

piš- (#)

Fr.: pré-   

A prefix meaning "before, prior to, in advance of, early, beforehand, in front of."

M.E., from O.Fr. pré-, from L. præ (adverb) "before."

Piš- "before; in front," from Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier," O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of."

pre-cluster core
  مغزه‌ی ِ پیش-خوشه‌ای   
maqze-ye piš-xuše-yi

Fr.: cœur pré-amas   

A precursor of a small, loosely bound → star cluster (→ bound cluster) as well as an → OB association, with masses ranging from about 10 to 1000 → solar masses or more.

pre-; → cluster; → core.

pre-degenerate star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیش-واگن   
setâre-ye piš-vâgen

Fr.: étoile pré-dégénérée   

Same as → PG 1159 star.

post-; → degenerate; → star.


Fr.: pré-dispersion   

A technique in spectroscopy which uses a combination of several dispersive elements (prisms in series or a grism) before focusing the light on the primary disperser, usually a grating, in order to achieve high spectral resolutions.

pre-; → dispersion.

pre-main sequence B[e] star (HAeB[e])
  ستاره‌یِ B[e]ی ِ پیش-رشته-ی فریست   
setâre-ye B[e]-ye piš-rešte-ye farist

Fr.: étoile B[e] pré-séquence principale   

A → Herbig AeBe star displaying → forbidden emission lines in its spectrum.

pre-; → main; → sequence; → B[e] star.

pre-main sequence star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیش-رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
setâre-ye piš-rešte-ye farist

Fr.: étoile pré-séquence principale   

A star that evolves in the → Hayashi phase and has not yet reached the → zero-age main sequence.

pre-; → main sequence, → star.

pre-nova stage
  گامه‌ی ِ پیش-نو-اختری   
gâme-ye piš-now-axtari

Fr.: étape pré-nova   

The stage of a star before its eruption to become a nova.

pre-; → nova; → stage.


Fr.: pré-stellaire   

An adjective relating to a stage before the formation of a → protostar. → pre-stellar core.

pre-; → stellar.

pre-stellar core
  مغزه‌ی ِ پیش-ستاره‌ای   
maqze-ye piš-setâreyi

Fr.: cœur pré-stellaire   

A small, gravitationally unstable molecular → clump of typical size of less than 0.1 pc resulting from → gravitational collapse and → fragmentation of a larger → molecular cloud. It is a centrally concentrated structure which evolves into a → class 0 object, where eventually a single star or a stellar system is formed. Core masses range between 0.5 and 5 solar masses, with a mean number density of at least 104-105 cm-3, and a temperature as low as about 10 K. A pre-stellar core evolves into a → Class 0 object. Also called dense core.

pre-stellar; → core.

pre-WD star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیش-کوتوله‌ی ِ سفید   
setâre-ye piš-kutule-ye sefid

Fr.: étoile pré-naine blanche   

A → post-planetary nebula star that is approaching the top of the → white dwarf sequence. These stars have exhausted the capacity of → nuclear burning in their cores.

pre-; → white; → dwarf.


Fr.: prébiotique   

Existing before or making possible the appearance of living organisms. Prebiotic molecules are biologically essential components such as amino acids, sugars, and nucleic-acid bases which are precursors of the origin of life.

pre- + → bio- + -tic equivalent of → -ic.


Fr.: précesser   

1) To correct celestial coordinates for → precession.
2) To undergo → precession.

Back formation from → precession.

Back formation from pišâyân, → precession.

precessed coordinates
  هم‌آراهای ِ پیشایانیده   
hamârâhâ-ye pišâyânidé

Fr.: coordonnées précessées, ~ corrigées de la précession   

The apparent position of a celestial object corrected for the epoch → precession.

Precessed, p.p. of → precess; → coordinates.


Fr.: précession   

The periodic motion of the → rotation axis of a body such as a → spinning top in which the axis of rotation gradually sweeps out a conical shape. In the case of the spinning Earth, it is due to the combined → gravitational attractions of the → Sun, the → Moon, and → planets on Earth's → equatorial bulge. Since the Earth's axis is tilted to its → orbital plane or → ecliptic, the gravitational force of the Sun and the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge tend to pull it back toward the plane of ecliptic. As a result, the axis → precesses. Earth's axis of rotation precesses with a period of about 25,770 years, describing one complete circle on the → celestial sphere (→ precession constant). This circle has a radius of approximately 23°.5, equal to the → inclination of the Earth's orbit. Since the → vernal equinox is the reference direction for the → equatorial coordinate system, the coordinates of "fixed" objects change with time and must therefore be referred to an → epoch at which they are correct. → sign of zodiac.
See also → general precession; → precession of the ecliptic; → precession of the equator; → precession of the equinoxes; → precessional circle; → precession time; → geodetic precession; → general precession in longitude; → general precession in right ascension; → orbital precession; → perihelion precession; → planetary precession; → precession period.

L.L. præcissionem "a coming before," from L. præcessus, p.p. of præcedere "to happen before," from the fact that the equinoxes occur earlier each year with respect to the preceding year, from præ- "before," → pre-, + cedere "to walk, to go, to happen."

Pišâyân, literally "coming before," from piš- "before" → pre- + ây- (present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become"), from Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go;" + -ân suffix of space and time.

precession constant
  پایای ِ پیشایان   
pâyâ-ye pišâyân

Fr.: constante de précession   

The amount by which the equinoctial points drift westward annually due to precession. Its value for epoch J2000.0 is 50''.26, resulting from the westward → precession of the equator (50".38), and the eastward → precession of the ecliptic (0".12).

precession; → constant.

precession of the ecliptic
  پیشایان ِ هورپه   
pišâyân-e hurpeh

Fr.: précession de l'écliptique   

The component of general precession caused by the gravitational attraction of the planets on the Earth's center of mass. It causes the equinox to move eastward by about 0''.12 per year in the opposite direction to the → precession of the equator. This terminology replaces → planetary precession, according to an IAU resolution adopted in August 2006.

precession; → ecliptic.

precession of the equator
  پیشایان ِ هموگار   
pišâyân-e hamugâr

Fr.: précession de l'équateur   

That component of general precession caused by the combined effect of the Moon, the Sun and the planets on the equatorial protuberance of the Earth, producing a westward motion of the equinoxes along the ecliptic about 50'' per year. According to an IAU resolution adopted in August 2006, the present terminology replaces lunisolar precession.

precession; → equator.

precession of the equinoxes
  پیشایان ِ هموگان‌ها   
pišâyân-e hamugânhâ

Fr.: précession des équinoxes   

The slow motion of the equinoxes along the ecliptic, resulting from the combined motion of the equator (→ precession of the equator) and the ecliptic (→ precession of the ecliptic), or in other words the precession of the Earth's axis of rotation. Also know as → general precession. The First Point of Aries moves westward along the ecliptic at 50.38 arcseconds per year (1 degree every 71.6 years), causing the equinoxes to occur about twenty minutes earlier each sidereal year. See also → nutation.

precession; → equinox.

precession of the nodes
  پیشایان ِ گره‌ها   
pišâyân-e gereh-hâ

Fr.: précession des nœuds   

The gradual change in he orbital planes of a binary system.

precession; → node.

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