An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1041
periphery
  پیرابَر   
pirâbar

Fr.: périphérie   

The external surface or boundary of a body. The circumference or perimeter of any closed figure.

From, M.E., from O.Fr. periferie, from L.L. peripheria, from Gk. peripheria "circumference, outer surface," literally "a carrying around," from peripheres "rounded, moving round," peripherein "to carry or move round," from → peri- "round about" + pherein "to carry;" cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead," as below.

Pirâbar, from pirâ-, → peri-, + bar present stem of bordan "to carry, lead" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").

periscope
  پیرابین، پیرانما   
pirâbin, pirânamâ (#)

Fr.: périscope   

An optical instrument for viewing objects which are above the eye-level of the observer, or are placed so that direct vision is blocked.

peri-; + → -scope.

permafrost
  ماندبشم   
mândbašm

Fr.: pergélisol   

Layer of soil or rock, at some depth beneath the surface, in which the temperature has been continuously below 0°C from a few to several thousands of years. It exists where summer heating fails to reach the base of the layer of frozen ground.

From perma(nent) + → frost.

Mândbašm, from mând, → permanent, + bašm, → frost.

permanent
  ماندگار   
mândegâr (#)

Fr.: permanent   

Lasting or remaining without essential change.

Permanent, from M.Fr. permanent, from L. permanentem "remaining," pr.p. of permanere "endure, continue, stay to the end," from per- "through" + manere "stay," cognate with Pers. mândan, as below; → gas.

permanent gas
  گاز ِ ماندگار   
gâz-e mândegâr

Fr.: gaz permanent   

Gas which cannot be liquefied by pressure alone; gas above its critical temperature.

permanent; → gas.

permanent magnet
  آهنربای ِ ماندگار   
âhanrobâ-ye mândegâr

Fr.: aimant permanent   

A piece of magnetic material which, having been → magnetized, retains a substantial proportion of its → magnetization indefinitely. In permanent magnets the magnetic field is generated by the internal structure of the material itself. Atoms and crystals constituting materials are made up of electrons and atomic nuclei. Both the nucleus and the electrons themselves act like little magnets. There is also a magnetic field generated by the orbits of the electrons as they move about the nucleus. So the magnetic fields of permanent magnets are the sums of the nuclear spins, the electron spins and the orbits of the electrons themselves. In many materials, the magnetic fields are pointing in all sorts of random directions and cancel each other out and there is no permanent magnetism. But in certain materials, called → ferromagnets, all the spins and the orbits of the electrons will line up, causing the materials to become magnetic. Many permanent magnets are created by exposing the magnetic material to a very strong external magnetic field. Once the external magnetic field is removed, the treated magnetic material is now converted into a permanent magnet. Overheating a permanent magnet causes the magnet's atoms to vibrate violently and disrupt the alignment of the atomic domains and their dipoles. Once cooled, the domains will not realign as before on their own and will structurally become a temporary magnet (MagLab Dictionary).

permanent; → magnet.

permanent memory
  برم ِ ماندگار   
barm-e mândegâr

Fr.: mémoire permanente   

Storage capacity which does not depend on a continuous supply of power, e.g. disks, magnetic tapes, etc.

permanent; → memory.

permeability
  تراوایی   
tarâvâyi (#)

Fr.: perméabilité   

The degree of → magnetization of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. → magnetic permeability.

From permeable, from L. permeabilis "that can be passed through, passable," from L. permeare "to pass through," from per- "through" + meare "to pass," from PIE base *mei- "to change; to go, move."

Tarâvâyi quality noun of tarâvâ "permeable," from tarâvidan "to exude, trickle, ooze; to drop," probably from Proto-Iranian *tra-vaxš-. The first component *tra- "across, over, beyond," → trans-. The second component *vaxš-, cf. Av. uxš-/vaxš- "to sprinkle," present tense stem uxš-; cf. Skt. uks- "to sprinkle, moisten," uksati "spinkles, wets;" Gk. hygros "wet, moist, fluid;" L. uvidus "watery, humid, damp." Tarâvidan may be a back formation from *tarâvaš.

permission
  پرزامش   
parzâmeš

Fr.: permission   

The act of permitting. Authorization granted to do something.

verbal noun of → permit; → -tion.

permit
  پرزامیدن   
parzâmidan

Fr.: permettre   

To allow to be done or occur.

From M.Fr. permetre, from L. permittere "give up, allow, allow to pass through," from per- "through;" (from PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond;" cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over;" Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" Mod.Pers. par-, pirâ- "around, about") + mittere "let go, send."

Parzâmidan, literally "to allow to go through," infinitive of parzâm, from par- "through," from O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," cognet with L. per-, as above + zâm stem of Mid.Pers. zâmenidan "to let go, lead, send," Mod.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come;" O.Pers./Av. gam- "to come; to go," Av. jamaiti "goes;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come," E. come; PIE base *gwem- "to go, come."

permitted
  پرزامیده   
parzâmidé

Fr.: permis   

Allowed. → permitted line; → permitted transition.

Past participle of → permit.

permitted line
  خط ِ پرزامیده   
xatt-e parzâmidé

Fr.: raie permise   

An ordinary spectral line emitted by atoms undergoing energy transitions that are allowed by the selection rules of quantum mechanics. → forbidden lines.

permitted; → line.

permitted transition
  گذرش ِ پرزامیده   
gozareš-e parzâmidé

Fr.: transition permise   

A transition between two quantum mechanical states that does not violate the quantum mechanical selection rules.

permitted; → transition.

permittivity
  پرزامندگی   
parzâmandegi

Fr.: permittivité   

A measure of the ability of a material to transmit (or "permit") an electric field. Permittivity is defined as the ratio of the flux density produced by an electric field in a given dielectric to the flux density produced by that field in a vacuum. In → SI units, permittivity is measured in → farads per meter. The constant ε0 is known as the permittivity of free space; its value is about 8.854 x 10-12 F/m.

State or quality noun from → permit.

permutation
  پرموتش، جایگشت   
permuteš, jâygašt

Fr.: permutation   

Math.: A rearrangement of the elements of a set in a particular order, as abc into acb, bac, etc.

Verbal noun of → permute.

Permuteš, verbal noun of → permute.
Jâygašt , from "place" (from Mid.Pers. giyag "place;" O.Pers. ā-vahana- "place, village;" Av. vah- "to dwell, stay," vanhaiti "he dwells, stays;" Skt. vásati "he dwells;" Gk. aesa (nukta) "to pass (the night);" Ossetic wat "room; bed; place;" Tokharian B wäs- "to stay, wait;" PIE base ues- "to stay, live, spend the night") + gašt past tense of gaštan, gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

permute
  پرموتیدن   
permutidan

Fr.: permuter   

M.E., from L. permutare "to change throughout," from per- "through" + mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mith- "to alternate, meet," mithás "opposite, in opposition;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake).

Permutidan, from permute, as above.

perpendicular
  پالار   
pâlâr

Fr.: perpendiculaire   

A line or plane at right angles to another line or plane. Two curves are said to be perpendicular if their tangent lines are mutually perpendicular. → normal; → vertical

From M.E. perpendiculer(e), from O.Fr. perpendiculiere, from L. perpendicularis "vertical, as a plumb line," from perpendiculum "plumb line," from perpendere "balance carefully," from per- "thoroughly" + pendere "to weigh, to hang."

Pâlâr "pillar, column, main beam."

perpendicular axis theorem
  فربین ِ آسه‌ها‌ی ِ پالار   
farbin-e âsehâ-ye pâlâr

Fr.: théorème des axes perpendiculaires   

The → moment of inertia of a plane object (→ lamina) about an axis perpendicular to the plane is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about any two perpendicular axes in the plane. Thus if x and y axes are in the plane, Iz = Ix + Iy.

perpendicular; → axis; → theorem.

perpetual
  همیشگی   
hamišegi (#)

Fr.: perpétuel   

Lasting an indefinitely long time; eternal; permanent. → perpetual motion; → perpetual calendar.

M.E. perpetuall, from O.Fr. perpetuel, from L. perpetualis "permanent," from perpetuus "continuous, universal," from perpetis, genitive of Old L. perpes "lasting;"

Hamišegi from hamišé "always;" Mid.Pers. hamišag, from anôšag "immortal," from Av. an-aoša-, from negation prefix → an- + aošah- "death; ruin; corruption" (Mid.Pers. hôš "death;" Mod.Pers. hôš, huš "death; mind; intellect"); cf. derivatives Sogd. nôšé "immortal," nôšak "always;" Mod.Pers. nôš, nuš "the water of immortality; sweet; honey."

perpetual calendar
  گاهشمار ِ همیشگی   
gâhšomâr-e hamišegi

Fr.: calendrier perpétuel   

A chart or mechanical device that indicates the day of the week for any given date over a period of many years.

perpetual; → calendar.

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