An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 611
intracluster medium (ICM)
  مدیم ِ اندرخوشه‌ای   
madim-e andarxuše-yi

Fr.: milieu interamas   

A diffuse (Ne ~ 10-3 cm-3), hot (T ~ 107-108 K), magnetized (B ~ 0.1-10 μG) plasma that exists between galaxies in a → galaxy cluster and is composed mainly of H, He, and → heavy elements. The ICM strongly emits → X-rays (Lx ~ 1045 erg s-1), making it the most luminous extended X-ray source in Universe. While some of the gas has been stripped out of galaxies, it is also likely that some is also primordial in nature, and has been accreted into the clusters. The origin of the ICM is subject of intense investigation. Broadly, two possibilities have been envisaged. The first one considers the intracluster gas to be once contained in galaxies and later driven in the ICM. This would explain several observations: the presence of high → metallicity gas, and H I deficiency of galaxies residing in the cores of rich clusters (which suggests that gas stripping has occurred). Alternatively, the ICM is primordial, originating at the time of cluster formation. Actually the ICM may result from a combination of both scenarios.

intra-; → cluster; → medium.

intramercurial planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ فروتیری   
sayyâre-ye forutiri

Fr.: planète intramercurienne   

A hypothetical planet, named Vulcan, that once was believed to exist between the Sun and Mercury.

intra-; → Mercury; → planet.

intramolecular forces
  نیروها‌ی ِ درون‌ملکولی   
niruh-ye darunmolekuli

Fr.: intramoléculaire   

Within the molecule; occurring by a reaction between different parts of the same molecule.

intra-; → molecular.


Fr.: intrinsèque   

Belonging to a thing by its very nature; true; not affected by external factors; → intrinsic brightness. Opposite to extrinsic.

Intrinsic, from M.Fr. intrinsèque "inner," from M.L. intrinsecus "interior, internal," from L. intrinsecus (adv.) "inwardly, on the inside," from intra "within" + secus "alongside," originally "following" (related to sequi "to follow").

Darungin, from darun "in, into; within" (Mid.Pers. andarôn "inside," from andar, → inter-, + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + -gin adj. suffix, contraction of âgin "filled."

intrinsic brightness
  درخشندگی ِ درونگین   
deraxšandegi-ye darungin

Fr.: brillance intrinsèque   

The brightness of an object, such as a star, that is not affected by interstellar absorption and independent of distance.

intrinsic; → brightness.

intrinsic color
  رنگ ِ درونگین   
rang-e darungin

Fr.: couleur intrinsèque   

A → color not affected by → extinction.

intrinsic; → color.

intrinsic luminosity
  تابندگی ِ درونگین   
tâbandegi-ye darungin

Fr.: luminosité intrinsèque   

The energy per second emitted by an astronomical object.

intrinsic; → luminosity.

intrinsic semiconductor
  نیم‌هازا‌ی ِ درونگین   
nimhâzâ-ye darungin ~

Fr.: semiconducteur intrinsèque   

A pure semiconductor containing no → impurity atoms. → extrinsic semiconductor.

intrinsic; → semiconductor.

intrinsic variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ درونگین   
vartande-ye darungin

Fr.: variable intrinsèque   

A variable star whose fluctuations in brightness are due to natural changes in the luminosity of the star itself, not by external causes, such as in → extrinsic variable stars.

intrinsic; → variable.

  اندرهاختن، اندرهازش   
andarhâxtan, andarhâzidan

Fr.: introduire   

1) To lead or bring in especially for the first time.
2) To bring into practice or use.
3) To present or announce formally or officially or by an official reading (

M.E., from L. introducere "to lead inside, to bring in," from intro- "on the inside, within, to the inside," → inter-, + ducere "to lead," → conduct.

Andarhâxtan, andarhâzidan, from andar- "in, into, between," → inter-, + hâxtan, hâzidan "to lead, guide," → conduct.


Fr.: introduction   

1) The act or process of introducing; the state of being introduced.
2) A part of a book or treatise preliminary to the main portion; a preliminary treatise or course of study (

Verbal noun of → introduce; → -tion.


Fr.: intuition   

The immediate apprehension of knowledge through the use of the senses, without conscious reasoning or analysis. → intuitive, → intuitionism.

M.E., from L.L. intuitionem "a looking at, consideration," noun of action from p.p. stem of intueri "look at, consider," from → in- "at, on" + tueri "to look at, watch over."

Dargas, literally "looking at, consider," from dar-, → in-, + *gas "to look, appear;" cf. Parthian âgas "visible, apparent," pargas- "to observe, take care," related to negâh "look, attention," âgâh "aware, knowing;" Sogd. pcks- "to expect;" Proto-Ir. *kas- "to look, appear" (Cheung 2007).


Fr.: intuitionnisme   

A → philosophy of → mathematics that was introduced by the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer (1881-1966). Intuitionism is based on the idea that mathematics is a creation of the mind. The truth of a mathematical statement can only be conceived via a mental construction that proves it to be true, and the communication between mathematicians only serves as a means to create the same mental process in different minds (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

intuition; → -ism.


Fr.: intuitif   

Known or perceived by → intuition. See also → intuitionism.

intuition; → -ive.


Fr.: invalide   

Logic: The quality of an argument when its conclusion is false even if all the premises are true.

in-; → valid.


Fr.: invalidité   

invalid; → -ity.

invariable plane
  هامُن ِ ناورتنده   
hâmon-e nâvartandé

Fr.: plan invariable   

Mechanics: For a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, a plane which is perpendicular to the angular momentum vector of the body, and which is always tangent to its → inertia ellipsoid.

Invariable negation of → variable; → plane.


Fr.: invariance   

Any property of a physical law or quantity that is unchanged after the application of certain classes of transformations.

Invariance; noun of → invariant.


Fr.: invariant   

A quantity which is independent of the coordinate system. For example the vector product of two vectors is an invariant since it depends only on the magnitude of the two vectors and the angle between them.

From negation prefix → in- + variant, from L. variantem (nom. varians), pr.p. of variare "to change," from varius "varied, different, spotted."

Nâvartâ, from negation prefix nâ-, → in-, + vartâ adj., from vartidan, variant of gardidan, gaštan "to change; to turn," Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend."


Fr.: inventer   

To create or design a new type of thing (process, machines, etc.). See also → discover.

From L. inventus, p.p. of invenire "to encounter, come upon, find," from in- "upon" + ven-, from venire "to come" + -tus p.p. suffix.

Parâvidan on the model of dialectals Munji purôv-/purvi-, Yidgha pura-/prvei- "to find, obtain," Shughni, Roshani, Bartangi, Yazghulami firâp-fiript "to arrive at, reach;" prefixed (*fra-/*pra-) from Proto-Iranian *Hap/f- "to reach, attain;" cf. Av. ap- "to reach, attain;" related to Pers. yâb-, yâftan "to find" (Cheung 2007).

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