An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 602
information entropy
  درگاشت ِ ازدایش   
dargâšt-e azdâyeš

Fr.: entropie de l'information   

The measure of information, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. In other words, the degree to which the values of a → random variable X are dispersed. If the → probability density function of X is P(x), the entropy is defined by: H(X) = -Σ P(x) log P(x). Also called → Shannon entropy.

information; → entropy.

information flow
  تچان ِ ازدایش   
tacân-e azdâyeš

Fr.: flot d'information   

The flow of data into a system or to the end users.

information; → flow.

information paradox
  پارادخش ِ ازدایش   
pârâdaxš-e azdâyeš

Fr.: paradoxe de l'information   

A paradox raised in 1976 by S. Hawking (1942-) whose analysis of the thermodynamic properties of → black holes led him to the prediction that black holes are not in fact black, but radiate due to quantum effects. This implied that, due to the → Hawking radiation, a black hole would eventually evaporate away, leaving nothing. This deduction presented a problem for quantum mechanics, which maintains that nothing, including information, can ever be lost. A solution is that black holes radiate away a category of information through the Hawking radiation and at the same time they destroy all of another category of information, in compatibility with the → second law of thermodynamics.

information; → paradox.

information science
  دانش ِ ازدایش، ازداییک   
dâneš-e azdâyeš azdâyik (#)

Fr.: informatique   

Same as → informatics.

information; → science.

information technology
  تشنیک‌شناسی ِ ازدایش   
tašnik-šenâsi-ye azdâyeš

Fr.: technologie de l'informtion   

The science and activity of receiving, storing, processing, and transmitting information by using → computers.

information; → technology.

information theory
  نگره‌ی ِ ازدایش   
negare-ye azdâyeš (#)

Fr.: théorie de l'information   

The mathematical theory that defines, quantifies, and analyzes the concept of → information. It involves → probability theory in → transmission of → messages when the → bits of information are subject to various distortions. Its goal is to enable as much information as possible to be reliably stored on a medium, retrieved, or communicated.
See also:
information content, → information entropy, → information flow, → information paradox, → information science, → information theory, → quantum information, → entropy.

information; → theory.

informative
  ازدامند   
azdâmand

Fr.: informatif   

Giving → information, providing information, imparting → knowledge.

From informat-, from L. informatus, from → inform + → -ive.

informer
  ازداگر   
azdâgar

Fr.: informateur   

A person who provides → information.

From → inform + -er, → -or.

infosphere
  ازداسپهر   
azdâsepehr

Fr.: infosphère   

The global network of all the world's communications, databases, and sources of information.

information; → sphere.

infra-
  فرو-   
foru-

Fr.:infra-   

A prefix meaning "below," used with second elements of any origin. → infrared; → infrasound.

From L. infra "below, underneath, beneath," from PIE *ndher; cf. Mod.Pers. zir "below, down," akin to → under-.

Foru-, from foru "down, downward; below; under, beneath; low," from Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain."

infrared
  فروسرخ   
forusorx (#)

Fr.: infrarouge   

The invisible part of electromagnetic spectrum possessing wavelengths between those of visible light and those of radio waves, i.e. approximately between about 0.75 and 1000 μm.

From L. infra (adv., prep.) "below, underneath, beneath," inferus "lower," from PIE *ndher; cf. Av. aδara- (adj.), aδairi- (prep.) "below;" Mid.Pers. êr "below, down; low, under," adar "low," azêr "below, under" (Mod.Pers. zir "below, down"); Skt. ádhara- "lower;" O.E. under "under, among"); → red.

Forusorx, from foru "down, downward; below; beneath;" Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain," + sorxred.

infrared array
  آرست ِ فروسرخ   
ârast-e forusorx

Fr.: détecteur mosaïque infrarouge   

A two-dimensional infrared imaging device, consisting of an array of small, individual electronic detectors, each of which records a pixel in the image.

infrared; → array.

Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)
  ماهواره‌ی ِ اخترشناختی ِ فروسرخ   
mâhvâre-ye axtaršenâxti-e forusorx (#)

Fr.: satellite astronomique infrarouge   

An orbiting infrared telescope (60 cm mirror) which successfully operated from launch in January 1983 until the supply of coolant ran out in November 1983. It was a collaborative mission between NASA, the Netherlands, and the UK, and mapped 95% of the whole sky in the wavelength bands 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns.

infrared; → astronomical; → satellite.

infrared astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ فروسرخ   
axtaršenâsi-ye forusorx (#)

Fr.: astronomie infrarouge   

The study of infrared properties of astronomical objects.

infrared; → astronomy.

infrared camera
  کدک ِ فروسرخ   
kadak-e forusorx

Fr.: caméra infrarouge   

An optical camera equipped with a → detector which is sensitive to → infrared radiation.

infrared; → camera.

infrared cirrus
  سیروس ِ فروسرخ   
sirus-e forusorx (#)

Fr.: cirrus infrarouge   

Wispy, extended structures seen above and below the plane of the Galaxy in the infrared maps of the sky (60-100 microns) produced by the → Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS).

infrared; L. cirrus "curl, tuft, plant filament like a tuft of hair."

infrared dark cloud (IRDC)
  ابر ِ تاریک ِ فروسرخ   
abr-e târik-e forusorx

Fr.: nuage sombre infrarouge   

A → dark cloud characterized by a → visual extinction Av≥ 102 mag. IRDCs are opaque even at 8 μm, and can be seen in silhouette against the bright diffuse → mid-infrared emission in the → interstellar medium.

infrared; → dark; → cloud.

infrared detector
  آشکارگر ِ فروسرخ   
âškârgar-e forusorx (#)

Fr.: détecteur infrarouge   

A thermal device for observing and measuring → infrared radiation.

infrared; → detector.

infrared emission
  گسیل ِ فروسرخ   
gosil-e forusorx

Fr.: émission infrarouge   

The portion of → electromagnetic radiation from → astrophysical objects in → infrared frequencies.

infrared; → emission.

infrared excess
  فزونی ِ فروسرخ، فرهبود ِ ~   
fozuni-ye forusorx, ferehbud-e ~

Fr.: excès infrarouge   

Infrared → emission from a star in excess of that expected from a → blackbody with the temperature corresponding to the temperature of the star.

infrared; → excess.

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