An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ic ice ide ima imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion Iro irr iso iso ite > >>

Number of Results: 602
irreversible process
  فراروند ِ واگشت‌ناپذیر   
farâravand-e vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: processus irréversible   

A physical process in which the combined → entropy of the → system and the → environment increases. During an irreversible process the system is not in equilibrium at all instances of time. Most of the processes in nature are irreversible. → reversible process.

irreversible; → process.


Fr.: isentrope   

Having a constant entropy.

iso- + → entropy + → -ic.

isentropic flow
  تچان ِ ایزودرگاشت   
tacân-e izodargâšt

Fr.: écoulement isentrope   

A → reversible flow in which the value of → entropy remains → constant; i.e. no energy is added to the flow, and no energy losses occur due to friction or dissipative effects.

isentropic; → flow.

isentropic process
  فراروند ِ ایزودرگاشت   
farâravand-e izodargâšt

Fr.: process isentrope   

A → thermodynamic process for which there is no → heat transfer with the surroundings, and no change in → entropy.

isentropic; → process.

Islamic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ اسلامی   
axtaršenâsi-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: astronomie islamique   

The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. The term Islamic should refer to a civilization rather than a religion, because much of the astronomy was secular. In fact more than 90% of "Islamic" astronomy deals with the Greek astronomy → Ptolemaic system, which has obviously nothing to do with religion. Moreover, many non-Muslims within that civilization contributed to this science and must be acknowledged. Apart from these considerations, the term "Islamic astronomy" creates a conceptual disparity. In comparison, the works of European astronomers, such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others are not placed under "Christian astronomy," and they are indeed not called "Christian scientists." See also → Arabic astronomy, → Islamic calendar.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → astronomy.

Islamic calendar
  گاهشمار ِ اسلامی   
gâhšomâr-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: calendrier islamique   

A religious and strictly → lunar calendar which follows the visibility of the lunar crescent after → conjunction and ignores the seasons (see also → synodic month). The year, which consists of 12 months of 29 or 30 days, is approximately 354 days long (→ lunar year of 354.3672 days). Because the calendar follows a purely lunar cycle, each month begins 10 or 11 days earlier each year in relation to the 365-day → solar year. As a result, the cycle of 12 lunar months regresses through the seasons over a period of 33 years. For religious purposes, Muslims begin the months with the first visibility of the lunar crescent. The month length may be 30 or 29 days during four or three successive months respectively. However, astronomers consider a calendar with months of alternately 30 and 29 days. The 33-year period contains 11 → leap years of 355 days. The origin of the Islamic era is considered to be the migration (Hijra) of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina on 16 July, A.D. 622. It was Caliph Umar (died 644) who, 17 years after the actual event, poised the migration as the beginning of the Muslim era.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → calendar.

  آداک، آبخوست، جزیره، تمب   
âdâk (#), âbxost (#), jaziré (#), tomb (#)

Fr.: île   

A tract of land completely surrounded by water, and not large enough to be called a → continent (

M.E. iland, from O.E. igland "island," from ieg "island;" PIE *akwa- "water," cf. Pers. âb, → water, + → land.

Âdâk, âdak, adak "island" (Dehxodâ), probably from Proto-Ir. *āpdaka- "placed in water," from *âp-, → water, cf. Pers. âb, + *da- "to place, put," cf. Pers. dâdan "to give," → thesis, + suffix *-ka.
Âbxost, ultimately from āpxvasta-, literally "stricken/pounded by water," from *āp-, → water, + *xvasta-, from Proto-Ir. *huah- "to strike, to thresh;" cf. Av. (paiti)xvanh- "to thresh;" Mid.Pers. xwastan "to tread, trample, thresh;" Mod.Pers. xvast "trampled, beaten," âbxun "island," šabixun "night attack;" Kurd. xistin, xin-, xa- "to strike, to beat;" Hamedâni xostan/xus-, Esfahâni xosan "to throw."
Jaziré loan from Ar. jazirah.
Tomb "island" in Iranian Hormozgâni dialects.

island universe
  گیتی-آداک، گیتی-جزیره   
giti-âdâk, giti-jaziré

Fr.: univers-île   

The hypothesis first put forward by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) according to which the objects termed "spiral nebulae" were stellar systems comparable to our own → Milky Way galaxy. At the end of the 18th century, William Herschel (1738-1822) using his giant reflectors discovered thousands of such nebulae. However, in spite of advances in observations it was never possible to prove Kant's idea until the second decade of the twentieth century. The observations using the Mount Wilson 2.50m (100 inch) telescope allowed Edwin Hubble in 1924 to firmly establish that the "spiral nebulae" were unquestionably extragalactic.

The term "island Universe" was first introduced by the German Alexander von Humboldt in 1850; → island; → Universe.

  ایزو-، هم-   
izo- (#), ham- (#)

Fr.: iso-   

Prefix denoting "equal; homogeneous; uniform." Also is- sometimes before a vowel.

From L.L., from Gk. isos "equal."

Izo-, loan from Gk. isos, as above. The Pers. ham-com- is overused; therefore this dictionary adopts izo-.

  ایزوبار، ایزوفشار   
izobâr (#), izofešâr

Fr.: isobare   

1) Meteo.: A line connecting points having equal pressure.
2) Any of a group of nuclides which, although having different atomic numbers, have identical mass numbers; e.g. the tin isotope 11550Sn and the indium isotope 11549In.

From Gk. isobares "of equal weight," from → iso- + bar, from baros "weight," cognate with Pers. bâr "charge, weight" (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy;" *bher- "to carry, give birth").

isobaric process
  فراروند ِ ایزوفشار   
farâravand-e izofešâr

Fr.: processus isobare   

A process taking place at constant pressure. → polytropic process.

Isobaric, adj. of → isobar; → process.

isobaric spin
isospin (#)

Fr.: spin isobarique   

Same as → isospin.

Isobaric, adj. of → isobar; → spin.

isochoric process
  فراروند ِ ایزوگنج   
farâravand-e izogonj

Fr.: processus isochore   

A process in which the volume remains unchanged.

From → iso- + chor-, from Gk. chora "place, land" + → ic.

Farâravand, → process; izogonj, from izoiso- + gonj "volume," gonjdan "to be contained; to hold exactly; to be filled;" Mid.Pers. winj- "to be contained;" Proto-Iranian *uiac-/*uic-; cf. Skt. vyac- "to contain, encompass," vyás- "extent, content, extension;" L. uincire "to bind."


Fr.: isochrone   

A curve on a → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram connecting all stars having the same age.

Isochrone, back formation from isochronal, from Gk. → iso- + khronos "time."

Izozamân, from → iso- + zamântime.


Fr.: isogonal   

Having similar angles.

iso- + -gonal, → diagonal

isogonal trajectory
  ترایشانه‌ی ِ ایزوکنج   
tarâyešâne-ye izokonj

Fr.: trajectoire isogonale   

Math.: A curve which intersects every member of a given one-parameter family of curves at one and the same angle.

isogonal; → trajectory.


Fr.: isohel   

Line joining geographical points of equal insolation during a specific interval of time.

From Gk. → iso- + hel, from helios "sun," → helio-.

Izohur, from izo-, → iso-, + hur "sun," cognate with → helio-.

isokinetic angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ ایزوجنبشی   
zâviye-ye izojonbeši

Fr.: angle isocinétique   

Adaptive optics: The angle over which wavefront phases become de-correlated by 1 radian rms due to → tip-tilt alone. It is defined analogously to the → isoplanatic angle.

iso-; → kinetic; → angle.


Fr.: isoler   

To set or place apart; detach or separate so as to be alone.
Chemistry: To obtain a substance in an uncombined or pure state.
Physics: → isolated system.

Isolate, back-formation from isolated, from Fr. isolé "isolated," from It. isolato, from L. insulatus "made into an island," from insula "island;" maybe from *en-salos "in the sea," from salum "sea."

Vâyutidan, from vâ- denoting "separation" (also "reversal, opposition; repetition; back, backward," variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind") + Mid.Pers. yut "separate, different," Mod.Pers. jodâ "separate, apart;" Av. yuta- "separate, apart" + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: isolé   

Set apart or separated from others or other things.

Past participle of → isolate.

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