interstellar medium (ISM)
Fr.: milieu interstellaire
The environment containing the → interstellar matter, consisting of gas (mostly hydrogen) and dust. Even at its densest phase, the interstellar medium is emptier than the best vacuum man can create in the laboratory, but because space is so vast, the interstellar medium still adds up to a huge amount of mass.
Fr.: molécule interstellaire
Any molecule that occurs naturally in clouds of gas and dust in the interstellar medium. So far more than 140 species have been discovered, many of which nonexistent on Earth.
Fr.: polarisation interstellaire
interstellar radiation field
meydân-e tâbeš andaraxtari
Fr.: champ de rayonnement interstellaire
A global ionizing radiation in the → interstellar medium provided by various sources all together.
Fr.: rougissement interstellaire
The dimming of light during its travel in the → interstellar medium due to absorption by → intervening → dust grains. Since shorter wavelengths are particularly affected, the spectrum of the light is increasingly dominated by the long wavelength end of the spectrum. As a result, the light is "reddened" as it travels through space. Robert J. Trumpler (1886-1956), a Swiss-American astronomer, was the first to produce a definite evidence of the existence of → interstellar extinction and to estimate its magnitude (1930).
interstellar reddening curve
xam-e sorxeš-e andaraxtari
Fr.: courbe de rougissement interstellaire
A graph showing the relation between → interstellar absorption (in magnitudes) and wavelength.
Fr.: scintillation interstellaire
An apparent twinkling of the signals from distant point-like radio sources (pulsars). It is due to turbulence, i.e. fluctuations in the electron density of the interstellar ionized gas, through which the signals have passed on their way to Earth.
Describing something that involves mutual relations between systems.
Fr.: conversion intersystème
A → radiationless relaxation process in which a molecule in some excited → electronic state converts to a state of different spin → multiplicity. Intersystem crossing is analogous to → internal conversion.
Fr.: raie semi-interdite
In spectroscopy, same as → semi-forbidden line.
1) Math.: A portion of a real line (i.e. a line with a fixed scale so
that every real number corresponds to a unique point on the line)
between two designated endpoints.
From O.Fr. intervalle, from L.L. intervallum, originally "space between two palisades or ramparts," from → inter- "between" + vallum "rampart."
Andarvâr, literally "between walls," from andar-→ inter- + vâr "wall," as in divâr "wall" (originally "fortress wall," from *dida-vāra-), variant bâru "wall, rampart, fortification; fort; tower;" Mid.Pers. bâr, var "enclosure, defences, fortress;" Av. var- "castle."
1) To occur or be between two things.
Back-formation from → intervention.
Occurring or falling between events or points.
Fr.: poussière intervenante
The act or fact of intervening.
M.E., from M.Fr. intervention, or directly from L.L., from L. intervenire "to come between, interrupt," from → inter-, + venire "to come," as below.
Andargam "coming between," from andar- "between," → inter-, + gam "to come;" cf. Av./O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Mod./Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come."
1) andardâ; 2) andardâyidan
Fr.: 1) interview, entretien; 2) interviewer, avoir un entretien avec
1a) A formal meeting in which one or more persons question, consult, or evaluate
Fr.: personne interviewée, invité(e)
A person who is interviewed.
From → interview + -ee representing -é, Fr. p.p. suffix.
A person who interviews.
darun- (#), dar- (#); foru- (#)
Prefix denoting: "inside, within; below." → intramolecular forces; → intermolecular forces; → intramercurian planet.
From L. intra "on the inside, within; during; below." Commonly opposed to → extra-.
Darun "in, into; within" (Mid.Pers. andarôn
"inside," from andar, → inter-, + rôn
"side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river").
intracluster medium (ICM)
Fr.: milieu interamas
A diffuse (Ne ~ 10-3 cm-3), hot (T ~ 107-108 K), magnetized (B ~ 0.1-10 μG) plasma that exists between galaxies in a → galaxy cluster and is composed mainly of H, He, and → heavy elements. The ICM strongly emits → X-rays (Lx ~ 1045 erg s-1), making it the most luminous extended X-ray source in Universe. While some of the gas has been stripped out of galaxies, it is also likely that some is also primordial in nature, and has been accreted into the clusters. The origin of the ICM is subject of intense investigation. Broadly, two possibilities have been envisaged. The first one considers the intracluster gas to be once contained in galaxies and later driven in the ICM. This would explain several observations: the presence of high → metallicity gas, and H I deficiency of galaxies residing in the cores of rich clusters (which suggests that gas stripping has occurred). Alternatively, the ICM is primordial, originating at the time of cluster formation. Actually the ICM may result from a combination of both scenarios.