An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 654
mass energy
  کاروژ ِ جرم   
kâruž-e jerm

Fr.: énergie de masse   

The energy (E) associated with a mass (m), as specified by the → mass-energy equivalence  E = mc2, where c is the → speed of light. For a moving body the total energy of the particle is expressed by: E2 = m2c4 + p2c2, where m is → rest mass and p → momentum.

mass; → energy.

mass extinction
  خاموشی ِ انبوه   
xâmuši-ye anbuh

Fr.: extinction en masse   

An event in the history of life on Earth in which large numbers of species (sometimes more than 90% of some species) vanish in a relatively short period of time. In spite of controversy, it is generally recognized that there have been at least six major mass extinctions. These occurred in the late Cambrian (500 million years ago), in the late Ordovician (440 million years ago), in the late Devonian (365 million years ago), at the end of the Permian (245 million years ago), in the late Triassic (208 million years ago), and at the end of the Cretaceous (65 million years ago).

mass; → extinction.

mass flow
  تچان ِ جرم   
tacân-e jerm

Fr.: écoulement de masse   

The mass of a fluid that passes a specified unit area in a unit amount of time.

mass; → flow.

mass formula
  دیسول ِ جرم   
disul-e jerm

Fr.: formule de masse   

An equation expressing the atomic mass of a nuclide as a function of its mass number and the atomic mass unit.

mass; → formula.

mass fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ جرم   
barxe-ye jerm

Fr.: fraction de masse   

The fractional amount (by mass) of a given element or nuclide in a given composition.

mass; → fraction.

mass function
  کریای ِ جرم   
karyâ-ye jerm

Fr.: fonction de masse   

1) The number of a class of objects as a function of their mass. → initial mass function (IMF); → present-day mass function (PDMF).
2) A numerical relation between the masses of the two components of a → spectroscopic binary that provides information on the relative masses of the two stars when the spectral lines of only one component can be seen. If Mp is the mass of primary (whose spectrum is known), Ms is the mass of secondary, and i the → angle of inclination of the orbit, the mass function is given by: (Ms3. sin3i) / (Mp + Ms)2.

mass; → function.

mass loss
  دسترفت ِ جرم   
dastraft-e jerm

Fr.: perte de masse   

The outpouring of particles and gas from a star, occurring at varying rates and by a variety of processes throughout a star's lifetime. → Bipolar flows are believed to be due to mass loss by forming → protostars, while → massive stars lose their mass through powerful → stellar winds.

mass; → loss.

mass loss rate
  نرخ ِ دسترفت ِ جرم   
nerx-e dastraft-e jerm

Fr.: taux de perte de masse   

The rate with which the → mass loss process takes place, usually expressed in → solar mass per year. → radiation-driven mass loss. The mass loss rate and the → terminal velocity are anti-correlated, since the → wind momentum is constant, → bi-stability jump.

mass loss; → rate.

mass number
  عدد ِ جرمی   
adad-e jermi (#)

Fr.: nombre de masse   

The total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus, i.e. the atomic weight.

mass; → number.

mass outflow
  استچان ِ جرم   
ostacân-e jerm

Fr.: écoulement de masse   

The flowing out of mass through various processes from an object, for example in a star forming region or in a close binary.

mass; → outflow.

mass segregation
  سوایش ِ جرم   
savâyeš-e jerm

Fr.: ségrégation de masse   

A consequence of the → dynamical relaxation process in a gravitationally → bound system, such as a → star cluster or a → globular cluster, where massive and low-mass members occupy different volumes. Massive members sink toward the center, while less massive members tend to move farther away from the center.

mass; → segregation.

mass shift
  کیب ِ جرمی   
kib-e jermi


The portion of the isotope shift which results from the difference between the nuclear masses of different isotopes.

mass; → shift.

mass spectrometry
  بیناب‌سنجی ِ جرم   
binânsanji-ye jerm

Fr.: spectrométrie de masse   

An analytical technique for identification of chemical structures, determination of mixtures, and quantitative elemental analysis, in which ions are separated according to the mass/charge ratio and detected by a suitable detector.

mass; → spectrometry.

mass spectrum
  بیناب ِ جرم   
binâb-e jerm (#)

Fr.: spectre de masse   

A spectrum of charged particles, arranged in order of mass or mass-to-charge ratios. → mass spectrometry.

mass; → spectrum.

mass transfer
  تراوژ ِ جرم   
tarâvaž-e jerm

Fr.: transfert de masse   

The process in which the evolved member of a close binary system passes gaseous material to its companion star.

mass; → transfer.

mass transport
  ترابرد ِ جرم   
tarâbord-e jerm (#)

Fr.: transport de masse   

In fluid mechanics, the motion of a given amount of material carried by a fluid from one point to another.

mass; → transfer.

mass-energy equivalence
  هموگ‌ارزی ِ جرم-کاروژ   
hamug-arzi-ye jerm-kâruž

Fr.: équivalence masse-énergie   

The principle of interconversion of mass and energy, described by the → mass-energy relation.

mass; → energy; → equivalence.

mass-energy relation
  باز‌آنش ِ جرم-کاروژ   
bâzâneš-e jerm-kâruž

Fr.: relation masse-énergie   

The famous equation proposed by Einstein as a consequence of his special theory of relativity describing the equivalence of mass and energy: E = mc2, where E is energy, m is the equivalent amount of mass, and c is the velocity of light.

mass; → energy; → relation.

mass-luminosity ratio
  وابر ِ جرم-تابندگی   
vâbar-e jerm-tâbandegi

Fr.: rapport masse-luminosité   

The ratio of the mass of a system, expressed in solar masses, to its visual luminosity, expressed in solar luminosities. The Milky Way Galaxy has a mass-luminosity ratio in its inner regions of about 10, whereas a rich cluster of galaxies such as the Coma Cluster has a mass-luminosity ratio of about 200, indicating the presence of a considerable amount of dark matter.

mass; → luminosity; → ratio.

mass-luminosity relation
  باز‌آنش ِ جرم-تابندگی   
bâzâneš-e jerm-tâbandegi

Fr.: relation masse-luminosité   

A relationship between luminosity and mass for stars that are on the main sequence, specifying how bright a star of a given mass will be. Averaged over the whole main sequence, it has been found that L = M3.5, where both L and M are in solar units. This means, for example, that if the mass is doubled, the luminosity increases more than 10-fold.

mass; → luminosity; → relation.

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