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MOLsphere MOLsepehr Fr.: MOLsphère A hypothetical, large molecular sphere, as a component of the → stellar atmosphere, suggested to encompass → red giant and → supergiant stars. This suggestion has offered satisfactory explanations to the spectrum of → Mu Cephei (Tsuji 2003), but it is not clear whether MOLspheres are common features of the atmospheres of all such stars. |
moment 1, 2) gaštâvar (#); 3) dam (#) Fr.: moment 1) Physics: An expression involving the → product
a → quantity, such as → force
or → mass, and its perpendicular → distance
from a reference point, such as → moment of force
(or → torque), → moment of inertia,
→ moment of momentum. From O.Fr. moment, from L. momentum "movement, moving power," also "instant, importance," contraction of *movimentum, from movere, → move. Gaštâvar literally "that which makes turn, turning agent," from
gašt "turning," past stem of
gaštan, gardidan "to turn,
to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;"
Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;"
L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;"
PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend") + âvar
agent noun of
âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce"
(Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess,"
from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry,"
bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri
"a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;"
Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry"). |
moment of force gaštâvar (#) Fr.: moment, couple A measure of a force's tendency to cause a body to → rotate about a specified → axis. It is given by the force times the perpendicular → distance of the → line of action from the axis. Same as → torque |
moment of inertia gaštâvar-e laxti (#) Fr.: moment d'inertie A quantity which is a measure of the inertness of a body in rotatory motion about an axis. It is equal to the sum of the products of the masses of all particles of the body by the squares of their distances from this axis: I = Σm_{i}r_{i}^{2}, where r_{i} is the distance of the particle of mass m_{i} from the axis. Moment of inertia depends only upon the shape of the body and the arrangement of its mass with respect to the axis. For a solid sphere it is (2/5)MR^{2}. Moment of inertia is used in place of mass in problems involving rotation. Thus, the → angular momentum is Iω and → angular kinetic energy is (1/2)Iω^{2}, where ω is → angular velocity. |
moment of momentum gaštâvar-e jonbâk Fr.: moment cinétique Same as → angular momentum. |
momentum jonbâk Fr.: quantité de movement In → Newtonian mechanics, the momentum p of a body with → mass m and → velocity v is the product of these two quantities: p = mv. Momentum usually means → linear momentum as opposed to → angular momentum. From L. momentum "movement, moving power," from movere "to move," → move. Jonbâk, from jonb present stem of jonbidan "to move" (Mid.Pers. jumbidan, jumb- "to move," Lori, Laki jem "motion," related to gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," gāman- "step, pac;" Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come;" Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come") + -âk noun suffix. |
monism yektâgerâyi (#), yektâbâvari (#) Fr.: monisme 1) Philo.: The doctrine that reality consists of an unchanging whole
in which change is mere illusion. → pluralism. |
monitor 1) pahridan; 2) pahregar Fr.: 1) contrôler; 2) moniteur, écran de contrôle 1) (v.) To watch closely or evaluate something on a constant or regular basis. From L. monitor "one who reminds, admonishes, or checks," from monere "to remind, warn, advise," related to memini "I remember, I am mindful of," mens "mind," from PIE base *men- "to think;" Pers. cognates under → idea. Pahregar "watch, guard,"
agent noun from pahré (Dehxodâ) "watch, guarding," from Mid.Pers.
pahr, pahrag "guard;" Av. pāθra.vant "guard, watchman," from
*pāθra-, from
Av. pā- "to protect," pāti "guards,"
nipā(y)- (with → ni-)
"to watch, observe, guard,"
nipātar- "protector, watcher," nipāθri- "protectress;"
cf. Skt. pā- "to protect, keep," tanû.pā- "protecting
the body," paś.pā- "shepherd;" Gk. poma "lid, cover,"
poimen "shepherd;" L. pascere "to put out to graze," pastor
"shepherd;" Lith. piemuo "shepherd;" PIE base *pā- "to protect, feed." |
mono- tak- (#), yek- (#), yektâ- (#), mono- (#) Fr.: mono- 1) A combining form meaning "alone, single, one," as in monochromatic,
Monoceros, monotonic. From Gk. mono-, from monos "single, alone," from PIE base *men- "small, isolated," also represented by Gk. manos "rare, sparse." Tak "single, alone", from Mid.Pers. tak "single, alone," maybe related to
tâk, tâi "unit, piece." |
Monoceros Takšâx (#) Fr.: Licorne The Unicorn. An extensive but faint constellation across the celestial equator , at 7h right ascension, 4° south declination. Abbreviation: Mon; genitive: Monocerotis. Monoceros "the unicorn," from O.Fr., from L., from Gk. monokeros, from → mono- "single" + keras "horn," kara "head," karena "head, top;" cf. Pers. soru "horn," sar "head;" L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;" Skt. śiras- "head, chief;" O.E. horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument" (originally made from animal horns), from P.Gmc. *khurnaz (Ger. Horn, Du. horen), from PIE *ker- "head, horn, top, summit." Takšâx, from tak "single" → mono- + šâx "horn, branch" (Mid.Pers šâk; cf. Skt. sakha- "a branch, a limb;" Arm. cax; Lith. šaka; O.S. soxa; PIE *kakhâ "branch"). |
Monoceros Loop gerdâl-e takšâx Fr.: Boucle de la Licorne A faint filamentary loop of nebulosity about 1 kpc distant, the remnant of a supernova that occurred about 300,000 years ago. It contains the Rosette Nebula as well as the Cone Nebula. |
monochromatic takfâm (#) Fr.: monochromatique Characterized by light of one color or by radiation of a single wavelength or narrow range of wavelengths. |
monochromatic opacity kederi-ye takfâm Fr.: opacité monochromatique The sum of → absorption coefficient (κ_{ν}) and → scattering coefficient (σ_{ν}) at a given frequency: k_{ν} = κ_{ν} + σ_{ν}. See also the → Rosseland mean opacity. → monochromatic; → opacity. |
monomial taknâmin Fr.: 1) monôme; 2) monomial 1) A single algebraic term, such as 2xy, 125, 2x^{2}.
The → degree of the monomial is the sum of the exponents of
all included variables. Constants have the monomial degree of 0. |
monomorphism tak-rixtmandi Fr.: monomorphisme A → morphismf : Y → X if, for any two morphisms u,v : Z → Y, f u = f v implies that u =v. |
monosemy takcemi Fr.: monosémie The fact of having only a single meaning. Same as → univocity. Compare with → polysemy. From → mono- "single," + sem, from sema "sign," → semantic, + -y. Takcemi, from tak-, → mono-, + cem, → meaning, + noun suffix -i. |
monotheism yektâ-yazdân-bâvari, yektâ-parasti (#) Fr.: monothéisme The belief or doctrine that there is only one → God. |
monotonic yeknavâxt (#) Fr.: monotone Of a mathematical function, either continuously increasing or decreasing. From Fr. monotone, from Gk. monotonos "monotonous, of one tone," from monos, → mono- "single, alone" + tonos "tone" + → -ic. Yeknavâxt "monotonous," from yek "one, single," + navâxt"rhythm," from navâxtan, navâzidan "to play an instrument; to gratify," navâ "music, song, melody;" Mid.Pers. nw'c "to treat kindly, honour," niwag "music, melody;" Proto-Iranian *ni-uac-, from *ni- (→ ni-) + *uac- "to speak, treat kindly," → word. |
monsoon bâdhâ-ye mowsemi (#) Fr.: mousson A seasonal change in wind direction bringing dry air or heavy rain in India and nearby lands. Monsoon, from Du. monssoen, from Port. monçao, from Ar. mausim "season." It was first applied to the winds over the Arabian Sea, which blow for six months from northeast and for six months from southwest, but it has been extended to similar winds in other parts of the world. Bâd, → "wind;" mowsem, related to mowsem, from Ar. mausim, as above. |
Monte Carlo Method raveš-e Monte Carlo Fr.: méthode de Monte Carlo A computer-intensive technique that relies on repeated random sampling of a statistical population to compute its results. Monte Carlo simulation is often used for approximate numerical computations when application of strict methods requires too much calculation, or when it is infeasible or impossible to compute an exact result with a deterministic algorithm. The term Monte Carlo was coined in the 1940s by physicists (Stanislaw Ulam, Enrico Fermi, John von Neumann, and Nicholas Metropolis) working on nuclear weapon projects in the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The name is a reference to a famous casino in Monaco which, it is said that, Ulam's uncle would borrow money to gamble at. → method. |
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