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massive porjerm (#) Fr.: massif Consisting of or forming a large mass. From M.Fr. massif (feminine massive) "bulky, solid," from O.Fr. masse "lump." Porjerm, from por "full, much, very, too much," (Mid.Pers. purr "full;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. polus "many," plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full) + jerm, → mass. |
massive black hole siyahcâl-e porjerm Fr.: trou noir massif A black hole with a mass between millions and billions of solar masses residing in galactic nuclei. The mass of this type of black holes represents about 0.2% of the bulge mass. When matter is swallowed by the black hole, this gives rise to the tremendous energetic phenomena observed in quasars and active galactic nuclei. → massive; → black hole. |
massive close binary dorin-e kip-e porjerm Fr.: binaire serrée massive A → close binary system composed of two → massive stars. → massive; → close binary star. |
massive halo hâle-ye porjerm Fr.: halo massif Spheroidal distribution of dark matter surrounding a galaxy. |
massive star setâre-ye porjerm (#) Fr.: étoile massive A star whose mass is larger than approximately 10 → solar masses. The → spectral types of massive stars range from about B3 (→ B star) to O2 (→ O star) and include → Wolf-Rayet stars as well as → Luminous Blue Variables. Massive stars are very rare; for each star of 20 solar masses there are some 100,000 stars of 1 solar mass. Despite this rarity, they play a key role in astrophysics. They are major sites of → nucleosynthesis beyond oxygen and, therefore, are mainly responsible for the → chemical evolution of galaxies. Due to their high ultraviolet flux and powerful → stellar winds, they bring about interesting phenomena in the → interstellar medium, like → H II regions, → turbulence, → shocks, → bubbles, and so on. Massive stars are progenitors of → supernovae (→ type Ia, → type Ic and → type II), → neutron stars, and → black holes. The formation processes of massive stars is still an unresolved problem. For massive stars the → accretion time scale is larger than the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale. This means that massive stars reach the → main sequence while → accretion is still going on. |
master mastar (#) Fr.: maître 1) A person with the ability or power to use, control, or dispose of something. M.E. maistre, maister, from O.E. magister, from L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher," ultimately from PIE root *meg- "great," cf. Pers. meh-, as below. (Aftari) Mastar "elder; larger," (Dari Kermân) mastar "leader, guide," variants (Aftari, Tafreši) mester "elder; great," massar "large, great, high," from (Nâini, Sangesari, Dari Yazd, Kermâni) mas "great, large," variant of meh "great, large, principal," cognate with L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher;" → Big Bang, + comparative suffix -tar. |
match kâd Fr.: match, partie A game or contest in which two or more contestants or teams oppose each other (Dictionary.com). Originally "one of a pair, an equal;" O.E mæcca, "companion, mate, one of a pair, wife, husband, an equal," from gemæcca; cf. O.S. gimaco "fellow, equal," O.H.G. gimah "comfort, ease," M.H.G. gemach "comfortable, quiet," Ger. gemach "easy, leisurely." Kâd, from Mid.Pers. kâdag "game," Sogd. kâtak "game, play;" cf. Kurd. (Sorani) kâya "game," Zazaki kây, Abyâneyi, Anâraki, Nâini kâye, Qohrudi kâda, Shamerzâdi ke, Zefrehi kê "game, play;" Av. kā- "to take pleasure, desire;" Skt. kā- "to desire, wish." |
mater mâdar (#) Fr.: mère, matrice The body of the → planispheric astrolabe which is a thin circular plate, with a hole in the center. It has a thicker, raised, and graduated edge, called the → limb. The hollow of the mater holds the → tympanum and the rotating → rete. The upper part of the mater carries a jointed ring, called the → throne. By slipping one's thumb into the ring, one raises the instrument so that its weight and symmetrical design keeps it perpendicular to the ground. On the back of the mater are engraved several circular scales (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum). From L. mater, → mother. |
material 1) mâdeyi, mâddi, mâdig; 2) mâdig Fr.: 1, 2) matériel 1) (adj.) Formed or consisting of matter. From L.L. materialis (adj.) "of or belonging to matter," from L. materia, → matter, + → -al. Mâdig, from mâd, mâddé, → matter, + -ig, → -ic. |
materialism mâddebâvari (#) Fr.: matérialisme Belief that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena. N.L. materialismus; → material + -ism. Mâddebâvari, from mâddé, → matter, + bâvari, from bâvar "belief" (Mid.Pers. wâbar "beleif;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing"). |
materiality mâddigi Fr.: matérialité The state or quality of being material. |
materialization 1) mâdigeš 2) mâdigâneš Fr.: matérialisation The act or process of materializing. Verbal noun of → materialize. |
materialize 1) mâdigidan; 2) mâdigândan Fr.: 1) se matérialiser; 2) matérialiser 1a) To come into material form. To take shape. |
mathematical mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique Of, relating to, or of the nature of mathematics. → mathematics; → -al. |
mathematical beauty zibâyi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: beauté mathématique Same as → mathematical elegance. → mathematical; → beauty. |
mathematical elegance qašangi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: élégance mathématique A mathematical solution or demonstration when it yields a result in a surprising way (e.g., from apparently unrelated theorems), is short, and is based on fundamental concepts. According to Henri Poincaré, what gives the feeling of elegance "is the harmony of the different parts, their symmetry, and their happy adjustment; it is, in a word, all that introduces order, all that gives them unity, that enables us to obtain a clear comprehension of the whole as well as of the parts. ... Elegance may result from the feeling of surprise caused by the un-looked-for occurrence together of objects not habitually associated. ... Briefly stated, the sentiment of mathematical elegance is nothing but the satisfaction due to some conformity between the solution we wish to discover and the necessities of our mind" (Henri Poincaré, Science and Method, 1908). According to Bertrand Russell, "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty -- a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show" (Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1945). → mathematical; → elegance. |
mathematical expectation omid-e mazdâhik, bayuseš-e ~, ~ riyâzi Fr.: espérance mathématique In probability and statistics, of a random variable, the summation or integration, over all values of the random variable, of the product of the value and its probability of occurrence. Also called → expectation, → expected value. → mathematical; → expectation. |
mathematical object barâxt-e mazdâhik, ~ riyâzi Fr.: objet mathématique An → abstract object dealt with in mathematics that has a definition, obeys certain properties, and can be the target of certain operations. It is often built out of other, already defined objects. Some examples are → numbers, → functions, → triangles, martices (→ matrix), → groups, and entities such as → vector spaces, and → infinite series. → mathematical; → object. |
mathematician mazdâhikdân Fr.: mathématicien An expert or specialist in → mathematics. M.E. mathematicion, from M.Fr. mathematicien, from mathematique, from L. mathematicus, → mathematics. Mazdâhikdân, from mazdâhik, → mathematics, + -dân "knower," present stem of dânestan "to know," → science. |
mathematics mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique A broad-ranging field of knowledge dealing with the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. M.E. mathematic, from L. mathematica (ars), from Gk. mathematike (tekhne) "mathematical science," from mathema (gen. mathematos) "science, knowledge," (+ -ike, → -ics), related to manthein "to learn, to know" from PIE base *men- "to think," (cf. Av. mazdāh- "memory," as below, Lith. mandras "wide-awake," O.C.S. madru "wise, sage," Goth. mundonsis "to look at," Ger. munter "awake, lively"). Mazdâhik, from Av. mazdāh- "memory," mazdā-
"wisdom," mazdāθa- "what must be borne in mind;" from PIE
base *men- "to think," as above; cf.
Skt. medhā- "mental power, wisdom, intelligence;"
Gk. manthein, mathematike, as above. |
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