An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 663
macroscopic state
  درشت-استات، درشت-حالت   
dorošt-estât, dorošt-hâlat

Fr.: état macroscopique   

Same as → macrostate.

macroscopic; → state.

  درشت-استات، درشت-حالت   
dorošt-estât, dorošt-hâlat

Fr.: macro-état   

Statistical physics: A state of a physical system that is described in terms of the system's overall or average properties at a macroscopic level (→ temperature, → pressure, → density, → internal energy, etc.). A macrostate will generally consist of many different → microstates. In defining a macrostate we ignore what is going on at the microscopic (atomic/molecular) level. The → probability of a certain macrostate is determined by how many microstates correspond to this macrostate. Therefore, the greater the number of microstates which lead to a particular macrostate, the greater the probability of observing that macrostate. Same as → macroscopic state. See also → entropy, → Boltzmann's entropy formula, → multiplicity.

macro-; → state.


Fr.: macroturbulence   

The broadening of a star's → spectral lines due to → Doppler shifts from motions of different parts of the star's atmosphere.

macro; → turbulence.

Magellanic Bridge
  پل ِ ماژلانی   
pol-e Magellani

Fr.: pont magellanique   

A filament of → neutral hydrogen which connects the → Small Magellanic Cloud and → Large Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Bridge appears to result from a → close encounter between these two galaxies some 200 million years ago.

Magellanic Clouds; → bridge.

Magellanic Clouds
  ابرهای ِ ماژلان   
Abrhâ-ye Magellan

Fr.: Nuage de Magellan   

Two irregular satellite galaxies of our own Galaxy which are visible from the Southern Hemisphere as misty patches in the night sky. → Large Magellanic Cloud; → Small Magellanic Cloud.

Magellanic, named in honor of Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator (c. 1480-1521), who undertook the first voyage around the world. The two Clouds were first described by Magellan's chronicler Pigafetta, after leaving the Strait of Magellan in 1520; → cloud.

Magellanic Stream
  رابه‌ی ِ ماژلانی   
râbe-ye Magellani

Fr.: courant magellanique   

A thin trail of gas stretching from the → Magellanic System toward our own Galaxy over about 150° on the sky, corresponding to hundreds of thousands of light-years. This gas consists primarily of → neutral hydrogen and is thought to have originated from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as a result of tidal interactions with the Milky Way. See, e.g., Fox et al. 2013, arxiv/1304.4240, and references therein.

Magellanic Clouds; → stream.

Magellanic System
  راژمان ِ ماژلانی   
râžmân-e Magellani

Fr.: système magellanique   

A system consisting of the → Magellanic Clouds, the → Magellanic Bridge, and the → Magellanic stream.

Magellanic Clouds; → system.

Magellanic type galaxy
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ ماژلانی   
kahkešân-e gune-ye Magellani

Fr.: galaxie de type magellanique   

A → metal-poor, → irregular galaxy like the → Large Magellanic Cloud or the → Small Magellanic Cloud. Other examples are: NGC 4449, NGC 4214, and NGC 3109.

Magellanic Cloud; → type; → galaxy.

dâdyâr (#)

Fr.: magistrat   

1) A civil officer charged with the administration of the law.
2) A minor judicial officer, as a justice of the peace or the judge of a police court, having jurisdiction to try minor criminal cases and to conduct preliminary examinations of persons charged with serious crimes (

M.E., from O.Fr. magistrat, from L. magistratus "a magistrate, public functionary," from magistrare "to serve as a magistrate," from magister, "chief, director," → master.

Dâdyâr, from dâd, → justice, + yâr, "assistant, helper," → gravity assist.

mâgmâ (#)

Fr.: magma   

1) Molten → rock material that occurs below Earth's surface.
2) Molten material both below and on top of the surface of a → planet.

From L. magma "dregs of an ointment," from Gk. magma "an ointment," from root of massein "to knead, mold."

Mâgma, loanword from Fr.

magma chamber
  اتاقک ِ ماگما   
otâqak-e mâgmâ (#)

Fr.: chambre magmatique   

A large cavity within the Earth's → crust containing → magma. When a → vent is opened to the surface, magma is extruded onto the surface as → lava.

magma; → chamber.

manyeziom (#)

Fr.: magnésium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Mg. Atomic number 12; atomic weight 24.305; melting point about 648.8°C; boiling point about 1,090°C. The Scottish chemist Joseph Black recognized it as a separate element in 1755. In 1808, the English chemist Humphrey Davy obtained the impure metal and in 1831 the French pharmacist and chemist Antoine-Alexandre Brutus Bussy isolated the metal in the pure state.

The name originally used was magnium and was later changed to magnesium, which is derived from Magnesia, a district in the northeastern region of Greece called Thessalia.

  آهنربا، مغناتیس   
âhanrobâ (#), meqnâtis (#)

Fr.: aimant   

An object that produces a magnetic field around itself.

From L. magnetum (nom. magnes) "lodestone," from Gk. ho Magnes lithos "the Magnesian stone," from Magnesia region in Thessaly where magnetized ore was obtained.

Âhanrobâ, literally "iron attracting, iron robbing," from âhaniron + robâ agent noun of robudan, robâyidan "to attract, to grab, rob;" Av. urūpaiieinti "to cause racking pain(?);" cf. Skt. rop- "to suffer from abdominal pain," rurupas "to cause violent pain," ropaná- "causing racking pain," rópi- "racking pain;" L. rumpere "to break;" O.E. reofan "to break, tear."
Meqnâtis, from Ar., from Gk., as above.

magnetâr (#)

Fr.: magnétar   

A highly magnetized → neutron star with fields a thousand times stronger than those of → radio pulsars. There are two sub-classes of magnetars, → anomalous X-Ray pulsar (AXP)s and → soft gamma repeater (SGR)s, that were thought for many years to be separate and unrelated objects. In fact SGRs and AXPs are both neutron stars possessing → magnetic fields of unprecedented strength of 1014 - 1016 G, and that show both steady X-ray pulsations as well as soft gamma-ray bursts. Their inferred steady X-ray luminosities are about one hundred times higher than their → spin-down luminosities, requiring a source of power well beyond the magnetic dipole spin-down that powers → rotation-powered pulsar (RPP)s. New high-energy components discovered in the spectra of a number of AXPs and SGRs require non-thermal particle acceleration and look very similar to high-energy spectral components of young rotation-powered pulsars (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).

From magnet, contraction of → magnetic + -(s)tar, from → star.

  مغناتیسی، مغناتی، آهنرباییک   
meqnâtisi (#), meqnâti, âhanrobâyik

Fr.: magnétique   

Of or pertaining to a magnet or magnetism.

From → magnet + → -ic.

Meqnâtisi, meqnâti, from meqnâtis, → magnet; âhanrobâyik, from âhanrobâ, → magnet, + → -ik, → -ic.

magnetic advection
  پهنبز ِ مغناتیسی   
pahnbaz-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: advection magnétique   

The transport of the magnetic field by a fluid. It is given by the term ∇ x (v x B) in the → induction equation.

magnetic; → advection.

magnetic axis
  آسه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی   
âse-ye meqnâtisi

Fr.: axe magnétique   

The imaginary straight line joining the two → poles of a → magnet.

magnetic; → meridian.

magnetic bottle
  بطری ِ مغناتیسی   
botri-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: bouteille magnétique   

Any configuration of → magnetic fields used in the containment of a → plasma during controlled → thermonuclear reaction experiments.

magnetic; → bottle.

magnetic braking
  لگامش ِ مغناتیسی   
legâmeš-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: freinage magnétique   

The process whereby a star which loses mass slows down under the action of its → magnetic field. The stellar material follows the → magnetic field lines extending well beyond the stellar surface. The material gain → angular momentum and the underlying object is slowed down. Magnetic braking is an efficient mechanism for removing angular momentum from the the rotating object. See also → disk locking.

magnetic; → braking.

magnetic bremsstrahlung
  لگام-تابش ِ مغناتیسی   
legâm-tâbeš-e meqâtisi

Fr.: rayonnement de freinage magnétique   

Same as → synchrotron radiation.

magnetic; → bremsstrahlung.

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