An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 662
magnetic inclination
  درکیل ِ مغناتیسی   
darkil-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: inclinaison magnétique   

Same as → magnetic dip or → dip.

magnetic; → inclination.

magnetic induction
  درهازش ِ مغناتیسی   
darhâzeš-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: induction magnétique   

1) Same as → magnetic flux density.
2) The production of a magnetic field in a piece of un-magnetized iron or other → ferromagnetic substance when a magnet is brought near it. The magnet causes the individual particles of iron, which act like tiny magnets, to line up so that the sample as a whole becomes magnetized.

magnetic; → induction.

magnetic intensity
  درتنویی ِ مغناتیسی   
dartanuyi-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: intensité magnétique   

Strength of a magnetic field at a point, denoted H. The force which could be exerted on unit north magnetic pole situated at that point. Measured in oersteds. Same as → magnetic field strength.

magnetic; → intensity.

magnetic meridian
  نیمروزان ِ مغناتیسی   
nimruzân-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: méridien magnétique   

A meridian passing through the Earth's → magnetic poles.

magnetic; → meridian.

magnetic moment
  گشتاور ِ مغناتیسی   
gaštâvar-e meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: moment magnétique   

1) A measure of the strength of a magnet or current-carrying coil. In the case of a bar magnet it is obtained by multiplying the distance between the two magnetic poles by the average strength of the poles. Same as → magnetic dipole moment See also → dipole moment.
2) A measure of the magnetic flux set up by the gyration of an electric charge in a magnetic field.
3) In atomic and nuclear physics, → spin magnetic moment.

magnetic; → moment.

magnetic monopole
  تک‌قطبه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی   
takqotbe-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: monopôle magnétique   

A hypothetical particle that carries a single → magnetic pole, in contrast to magnets which are north-south pole pairs. These massive particles (billions of times heavier than the → proton) are required by grand unified theories(→ GUTs) to explain the actual matter content of the Universe, particularly the dominance of matter upon → antimatter. However, their existence contradicts → Gauss's law for magnetism.

magnetic; → monopole.

magnetic monopole problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ تک‌قطبه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی   
parâse-ye takqotbe-ye meqnâtisi

Fr.: problème du monopôle magnétique   

A problem concerning the compatibility of grand unified theories (→ GUTs) with standard cosmology. If standard cosmology was combined with grand unified theories, far too many → magnetic monopoles would have been produced in the early Universe. The → inflation hypothesis aims at explaining the observed scarcity of monopoles. The inflation has deceased their density by a huge factor.

magnetic; → monopole; → problem.

magnetic needle
  سوزن ِ مغناتیسی   
suzan-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: aiguille aimantée   

A slender → magnet suspended in a magnetic compass on a mounting with little friction; used to indicate the direction of the Earth's → magnetic pole.

magnetic; → needle.

magnetic north pole
  قطب ِ هودر ِ مغناتیسی   
qotab-e hudar-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: pôle nord magnétique   

A point of the → magnetosphere where the Earth's → magnetic field points vertically downward; in other words it has a 90° → magnetic dip toward the Earth's surface. The magnetic north pole can also be defined as the point toward which the south pole of the → compass needle is directed. The magnetic north pole is different from the → geographic north pole. It is actually hundreds of kilometers south of the geographic north pole. However, this has not always been the case. In the past 150 years it has moved more than 1,000 kilometers. Every 200,000 to 300,000 years the magnetic field of the Earth reverses direction, → magnetic reversal. Since the Earth's magnetic field is not exactly symmetrical, the north and south magnetic poles are not → antipodal.

magnetic; → north; → pole.

magnetic null point
  نقطه‌ی ِ نول ِ مغناتیسی   
noqte-ye nul-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: point nul magnétique   

A region of the → solar corona where the → magnetic field vanishes.

magnetic; → null; → point.

magnetic permeability
  تراوایی ِ مغناتیسی   
tarâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: perméabilité magnétique   

The ratio of the → magnetic induction, B, in the substance to the external magnetic field, H, causing the → induction: μ = B/H. It is measured in henry/meter and is known as absolute permeability. The relative permeability is equal to the ratio of absolute permeability to the permeability of the free space. Thus μr = μ/μ0, where μ0, the permeability of free space has the value 4π x 10-7 henry/meter.

magnetic; → permeability.

magnetic pole
  قطب ِ مغناتیسی   
qotb-e meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: pôle magnétique   

1) The region of a magnet toward which the lines of magnetic force converge (south pole) or from which the lines of force diverge (north pole).
2) Either of the two points on the Earth's surface where the magnetic lines of force converge. They are not aligned with the geographical poles, but shift and do not lie exactly opposite of the other. → magnetic north pole, → magnetic south pole, → magnetic reversal.

magnetic; → pole.

magnetic Prandtl number
  عدد ِ پرانتل مغناتیسی   
adad-e Prandtl-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: nombre de Prandtl magnétique   

A → dimensionless quantity used in → magnetohydrodynamics to describe the relative balance of → kinematic viscosity to → magnetic diffusion. It is described by: Pr = σμ0ν = ν/η, where σ is the → conductivity of the fluid, μ0 is the → magnetic permeability of the fluid, ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, and η is the → magnetic diffusivity.

magnetic; → Prandtl number.

magnetic pressure
  فشار ِ مغناتیسی   
fešâr-e meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: pression magnétique   

The pressure exerted by a magnetic field on the material that contains the field.

magnetic; → pressure.

magnetic quantum number
  عدد ِ کو‌آنتومی ِ مغناتیسی   
adad-e kuântomi-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: nombre quantique magnétique   

In atomic physics, a quantum number that denotes the energy levels available within a subshell. Designated by the letter m, it is one of a set of quantum numbers which describe the unique quantum state of an electron.

magnetic; → quantum; → number.

magnetic reconnection
  بازهابند ِ مغناتیسی   
bâzhâband-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: reconnexion magnétique   

In a → plasma, a change of → magnetic connectivity of plasma elements due to the presence of a localized → diffusion region. It allows charged particles to move from one → magnetic field line to another. Magnetic reconnection is an important process transforming magnetic energy into heat or/and kinetic energy. Magnetic reconnection events occur in the Earth's → magnetosphere. The process plays an important role in explosive phenomena in the Sun, such as → coronal mass ejections and → solar flares which heat the → solar corona.

magnetic; → re-; → connection.

magnetic relaxation
  واهلش ِ مغناتیسی   
vâheleš meqnâtisi

Fr.: relaxation magnétique   

The process by which a magnetic system relaxes to its minimum energy state over time.

magnetic; → relaxation.

magnetic resonance
  بازاوایی ِ مغناتیسی   
bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: résonance magnétique   

A phenomenon exhibited by certain atoms whereby they absorb energy at specific (resonant) frequencies when subjected to alternating magnetic fields.

magnetic; → resonance.

magnetic reversal
  وارونش ِ مغناتیسی   
vâruneš-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: inversion magnétique   

A change in the Earth's → magnetic field in which the → magnetic north pole is transformed into a → magnetic south pole and the magnetic south pole becomes a magnetic north pole. There are geological proofs indicating that the Earth's magnetic field has undergone numerous reversals of → polarity in the past. In the last 10 million years, there have been, on average, 4 or 5 reversals per million years. At other times, for example during the → Cretaceous era, there have been much longer periods when no reversals occurred. Over the past two centuries, Earth's magnetic field has weakened by 15%. Risks of a weak magnetic field include more deaths from cancer due to increased radiation, electrical grid collapse from severe solar storms, climate change, and temporary ozone holes.

magnetic; → reversal.

magnetic Reynolds number
  عدد ِ رینولدز ِ مغناتیسی   
adad-e Reynolds-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: nombre de Reynolds magnétique   

A → dimensionless quantity used in → magnetohydrodynamics to describe the relative balance of → magnetic advection to → magnetic diffusion. It is given by: Rm = σμ0νLU0, where σ is the → conductivity of the fluid, μ0 is the → magnetic permeability of the fluid, L is he characteristic length scale of the fluid flow, and U0 the characteristic velocity of the flow. A typical value for the Earth is Rm ~ 200.

magnetic; → Reynolds number.

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