An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 672
molecular weight
  وزن ِ مولکولی   
vazn-e molekuli (#)

Fr.: poids moléculaire   

The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule.

molecular; → weight.

molecule
  مولکول   
molekul (#)

Fr.: molécule   

The smallest unit of a chemical compound. A molecule consist of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

From Fr. moléclue, from Mod.L.molecula, diminutive of L. moles "mass, massive structure, barrier;" → -ula

MOLsphere
  مول-سپهر   
MOLsepehr

Fr.: MOLsphère   

A hypothetical, large molecular sphere, as a component of the → stellar atmosphere, suggested to encompass → red giant and → supergiant stars. This suggestion has offered satisfactory explanations to the spectrum of → Mu Cephei (Tsuji 2003), but it is not clear whether MOLspheres are common features of the atmospheres of all such stars.

MOL, from → molecular; → sphere.

moment
  ۱، ۲) گشتاور؛ ۳) دم   
1, 2) gaštâvar (#); 3) dam (#)

Fr.: moment   

1) Physics: An expression involving the → product a → quantity, such as → force or → mass, and its perpendicular → distance from a reference point, such as → moment of force (or → torque), → moment of inertia, → moment of momentum.
2) Statistics: For a → random variable X, its nth moment about the mean is the expected value of the nth power of X, where n is a positive integer. The nth moment of the deviation of X from the mean is called the nth central moment. The first moment is the → mean, the second central moment is the → variance.
3) A short indefinite period of time.

From O.Fr. moment, from L. momentum "movement, moving power," also "instant, importance," contraction of *movimentum, from movere, → move.

Gaštâvar literally "that which makes turn, turning agent," from gašt "turning," past stem of gaštan, gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend") + âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").
Dam, "breath; moment; time," from Mod./Mid.Pers. damidan "to breathe, blow;" Av. dāδmainya- "blowing up," Skt. dahm- "to blow," dhámati "blows," Gk. themeros "austere, dark-looking," Lith. dumti "to blow," PIE dhem-/dhemə- "to smoke, to blow".

moment of force
  گشتاور   
gaštâvar (#)

Fr.: moment, couple   

A measure of a force's tendency to cause a body to → rotate about a specified → axis. It is given by the force times the perpendicular → distance of the → line of action from the axis. Same as → torque

moment; → force.

moment of inertia
  گشتاور ِ لختی   
gaštâvar-e laxti (#)

Fr.: moment d'inertie   

A quantity which is a measure of the inertness of a body in rotatory motion about an axis. It is equal to the sum of the products of the masses of all particles of the body by the squares of their distances from this axis: I = Σmiri2, where ri is the distance of the particle of mass mi from the axis. Moment of inertia depends only upon the shape of the body and the arrangement of its mass with respect to the axis. For a solid sphere it is (2/5)MR2. Moment of inertia is used in place of mass in problems involving rotation. Thus, the → angular momentum is Iω and → angular kinetic energy is (1/2)Iω2, where ω is → angular velocity.

moment; → inertia.

moment of momentum
  گشتاور ِ جنباک   
gaštâvar-e jonbâk

Fr.: moment cinétique   

Same as → angular momentum.

moment; → momentum.

momentum
  جنباک   
jonbâk

Fr.: quantité de movement   

In → Newtonian mechanics, the momentum p of a body with → mass m and → velocity v is the product of these two quantities: p = mv. Momentum usually means → linear momentum as opposed to → angular momentum.

From L. momentum "movement, moving power," from movere "to move," → move.

Jonbâk, from jonb present stem of jonbidan "to move" (Mid.Pers. jumbidan, jumb- "to move," Lori, Laki jem "motion," related to gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," gāman- "step, pac;" Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come;" Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come") + -âk noun suffix.

monism
  یکتاگرایی، یکتاباوری   
yektâgerâyi (#), yektâbâvari (#)

Fr.: monisme   

1) Philo.: The doctrine that reality consists of an unchanging whole in which change is mere illusion. → pluralism.
2) Philo.: The doctrine that the person consists of only a single substance, or that there is no crucial difference between mental and physical events or properties.
3) The attempt to explain anything in terms of one principle only. → dualism, → materalism, → idealism (Dictionary.com).

mono-; → -ism.

monitor
  ۱) پهریدن؛ ۲) پهره‌گر   
1) pahridan; 2) pahregar

Fr.: 1) contrôler; 2) moniteur, écran de contrôle   

1) (v.) To watch closely or evaluate something on a constant or regular basis.
To oversee, supervise, or regulate.
2) (n.) A video device that displays data or images generated by a computer or terminal.

From L. monitor "one who reminds, admonishes, or checks," from monere "to remind, warn, advise," related to memini "I remember, I am mindful of," mens "mind," from PIE base *men- "to think;" Pers. cognates under → idea.

Pahregar "watch, guard," agent noun from pahré (Dehxodâ) "watch, guarding," from Mid.Pers. pahr, pahrag "guard;" Av. pāθra.vant "guard, watchman," from *pāθra-, from Av. pā- "to protect," pāti "guards," nipā(y)- (with → ni-) "to watch, observe, guard," nipātar- "protector, watcher," nipāθri- "protectress;" cf. Skt. pā- "to protect, keep," tanû.pā- "protecting the body," paś.pā- "shepherd;" Gk. poma "lid, cover," poimen "shepherd;" L. pascere "to put out to graze," pastor "shepherd;" Lith. piemuo "shepherd;" PIE base *pā- "to protect, feed."
Pahridan verb from pahr, as above.

mono-
  تک-، یک-، یکتا-، مونو-   
tak- (#), yek- (#), yektâ- (#), mono- (#)

Fr.: mono-   

1) A combining form meaning "alone, single, one," as in monochromatic, Monoceros, monotonic.
2) In chemistry applied to compounds containing one atom of a particular element (monohydrate).

From Gk. mono-, from monos "single, alone," from PIE base *men- "small, isolated," also represented by Gk. manos "rare, sparse."

Tak "single, alone", from Mid.Pers. tak "single, alone," maybe related to tâk, tâi "unit, piece."
Yek "one, alone," from Mid.Pers. êwak (Proto-Iranian *aiua-ka-); O.Pers. aiva- "one, alone;" Av. aēuua- "one, alone;" cf. Skt. éka- "one, alone, single; " Gk. oios "alone, lonely;" L. unus "one;" Ger. ein; E. one.
Yektâ-, from yek, as above, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part."
Mono-, loan from Gk., as above.

Monoceros
  تکشاخ   
Takšâx (#)

Fr.: Licorne   

The Unicorn. An extensive but faint constellation across the celestial equator , at 7h right ascension, 4° south declination. Abbreviation: Mon; genitive: Monocerotis.

Monoceros "the unicorn," from O.Fr., from L., from Gk. monokeros, from → mono- "single" + keras "horn," kara "head," karena "head, top;" cf. Pers. soru "horn," sar "head;" L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;" Skt. śiras- "head, chief;" O.E. horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument" (originally made from animal horns), from P.Gmc. *khurnaz (Ger. Horn, Du. horen), from PIE *ker- "head, horn, top, summit."

Takšâx, from tak "single" → mono- + šâx "horn, branch" (Mid.Pers šâk; cf. Skt. sakha- "a branch, a limb;" Arm. cax; Lith. šaka; O.S. soxa; PIE *kakhâ "branch").

Monoceros Loop
  گردال ِ تکشاخ   
gerdâl-e takšâx

Fr.: Boucle de la Licorne   

A faint filamentary loop of nebulosity about 1 kpc distant, the remnant of a supernova that occurred about 300,000 years ago. It contains the Rosette Nebula as well as the Cone Nebula.

Monoceros; → loop.

monochromatic
  تکفام   
takfâm (#)

Fr.: monochromatique   

Characterized by light of one color or by radiation of a single wavelength or narrow range of wavelengths.

mono-; → chromatic.

monochromatic opacity
  کدری ِ تکفام   
kederi-ye takfâm

Fr.: opacité monochromatique   

The sum of → absorption coefficientν) and → scattering coefficientν) at a given frequency: kν = κν + σν. See also the → Rosseland mean opacity.

monochromatic; → opacity.

monomial
  تکنامین   
taknâmin

Fr.: 1) monôme; 2) monomial   

1) A single algebraic term, such as 2xy, 125, 2x2. The → degree of the monomial is the sum of the exponents of all included variables. Constants have the monomial degree of 0.
2) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of a monomial.

mono- + nomial, short for → nomnial.

monomorphism
  تک-ریخت‌مندی   
tak-rixtmandi

Fr.: monomorphisme   

A → morphismf : Y → X if, for any two morphisms u,v : Z → Y, f u = f v  implies that u =v.

mono-; → morphism.

monosemy
  تکچمی   
takcemi

Fr.: monosémie   

The fact of having only a single meaning. Same as → univocity. Compare with → polysemy.

From → mono- "single," + sem, from sema "sign," → semantic, + -y.

Takcemi, from tak-, → mono-, + cem, → meaning, + noun suffix -i.

monotheism
  یکتایزدان‌باوری، یکتاپرستی   
yektâ-yazdân-bâvari, yektâ-parasti (#)

Fr.: monothéisme   

The belief or doctrine that there is only one → God.

mono-; → theism.

monotonic
  یکنواخت   
yeknavâxt (#)

Fr.: monotone   

Of a mathematical function, either continuously increasing or decreasing.

From Fr. monotone, from Gk. monotonos "monotonous, of one tone," from monos, → mono- "single, alone" + tonos "tone" + → -ic.

Yeknavâxt "monotonous," from yek "one, single," + navâxt"rhythm," from navâxtan, navâzidan "to play an instrument; to gratify," navâ "music, song, melody;" Mid.Pers. nw'c "to treat kindly, honour," niwag "music, melody;" Proto-Iranian *ni-uac-, from *ni- (→ ni-) + *uac- "to speak, treat kindly," → word.

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