An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 657
Milky Way system
  راژمان ِ راه ِ شیری   
râžmân-e râh-e širi

Fr.: Voie lactée   

The huge star system of which the Sun is a member. Same as the Galaxy or the Milky Way galaxy.

Milky Way; → system.

Miller-Urey experiment
  آزمایش ِ میلر-اوری   
âzmâyeš-e Miller-Urey

Fr.: expérience de Miller-Urey   

A chemical experiment conducted in 1953 that aimed at checking Alexander Oparin's and J. B. S. Haldane's hypothesis that under putative conditions present in the atmosphere of the early Earth inorganic molecules would spontaneously form organic molecules. Miller and Urey filled a sterile flask with a mixture of water, ammonia, methane, and hydrogen. The mixture was heated to evaporate water to produce water vapor. High-voltage electric sparks were passed through the mixture to simulate lightning. After a week, contents were analyzed. Amino acids, the building blocks for proteins, were found.

Named after Stanley L. Miller (1930-2007) and Harold C. Urey (1893-1981); → experiment.

milli-
  میلی-   
mili- (#)

Fr.: milli-   

Prefix meaning one thousandth (10-3).

From Fr., from L. mille "thiusand."

Mili-, loan from Fr.

millibar
  میلی‌بار   
milibâr (#)

Fr.: millibar   

One thousandth of a bar; a unit of atmospheric pressure. The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1.01325 bars or 1013.25 mb.

milli-; → bar.

Millikan's oil-drop experiment
  آزمایش ِ میلیکن   
âzmâyeš-e Millikan (#)

Fr.: expérience de Millikan   

A precision experiment for measuring the → electron charge. By studying the falling speed of small charged droplets in the gravitational field of the Earth subjected to an adjustable electric field, Millikan (1909) was able to demonstrate conclusively the discrete nature of electric charge, and moreover measure the charge of an individual electron.

Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953); → experiment.

millimeter wave
  موج ِ میلی‌متری   
mowj-e milimetri (#)

Fr.: onde millimétrique   

Microwaves with wavelengths between 1 and 10 millimeter, corresponding to frequencies between 300 GHz to 30 GHz. → millimeter-wave astronomy.

milli-; → meter; → wave.

millimeter-wave astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ موج‌های ِ میلی‌متری   
axtaršenâsi-ye mowjhâ-ye milimetri (#)

Fr.: astronomie millimétrique   

That part of radio astronomy which uses electromagnetic waves in the range 1-10 millimeter to study various components of the Universe, in particular the chemistry of interstellar matter.

millimeter wave; → astronomy.

million
  میلیون   
milyon (#)

Fr.: million   

A thousand thousand (106).

O.Fr. million, from It. millione, literally "a great thousand," augmentative of mille "thousand," from L. mille.

Milyon, Loan from Fr.

millisecond pulsar
  پولسار ِ میلی‌ثانیه، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e milisâniyé (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)

Fr.: pulsar milliseconde   

A type of pulsar that spins around its axis every few thousands of a second. The prototype 1937+21, discovered in 1982, has a period of 1.56 milliseconds; i.e. it spins more than 600 times per second, the fastest so far found (Backer et al. 1982, Nature 300, 615). These pulsars are distinguished from typical pulsars by the extreme stability of their rotation period. It is thought that they have been rejuvenated by a "spin-up process" involving the accumulation of matter from a companion star. → recycled pulsar.

milli-; → second; → pulsar.

millisievert (mSv)
  میلی-سیورت   
milisievert

Fr.: millisievert   

One thousands of a → sievert.

milli- + → sievert.

Mills cross
  چلیپای ِ میلز   
calipâ-ye Mills

Fr.: croix de Mills   

A design of → radio interferometer made of two lines of → antennae at right angles to one another.

Named after the Australian engineer and astronomer Bernard Yarnton Mills (1920-2011; see R.H. Frater et al. 2013, arXiv:1306.6371); → cross.

Milne cosmological model
  مدل ِ کیهان‌شناختی ِ میلن   
model-e keyhânšenâxti-ye Milne (#)

Fr.: modèle cosmologique de Milne   

Same as → Milne Universe.

Milne Universe; → cosmological; → model.

Milne Universe
  گیتی ِ میلن   
Giti-ye Milne (#)

Fr.: Univers de Milne   

A model of the → Universe which is devoid of matter and where the → space-time is → openM = 0, ΩR = 0, ΩΛ = 0, k = -1). The Universe will expand at a constant rate for ever. See also → empty Universe, → de Sitter Universe.

Put forward by Edward Arthur Milne (1896-1950), a British astrophysicist, who introduced the → cosmological principle; → cosmological; → model.

Milne-Eddington approximation
  نزدینش ِ میلن-ادینگتون   
nazdineš-e Milne-Eddington

Fr.: approximation de Milne-Eddington   

The approximation of a stellar atmosphere with a plane parallel grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. It is assumed that a spectral is formed in such a way that the ratio of the line absorption coefficient to the continuous absorption coefficient is constant with depth.

Milne Universe; Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → approximation.

Mimas
  میماس   
Mimâs (#)

Fr.: Mimas   

The seventh of Saturn's known satellites. It is 392 km in diameter and orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 185,520 km. Mimas' low density (1.17) indicates that it is composed mostly of water ice with only a small amount of rock. The surface is saturated with impact craters, dominated by the largest one measuring 130 km across, known as Herschel. Mimas was discovered in 1789 by Herschel.

In Gk. mythology, Mimas was one of the Gigantes slain by Hephaestus, the god of fire, volcanism, smiths and craftsmen, with barrage of red-hot metal.

mind
  منت   
ment

Fr.: esprit, intelligence, raison   

1) The human faculty to which are ascribed thought, feeling, etc; often regarded as an immaterial part of a person (Dictionary.com).
2) Psychology: The totality of conscious and unconscious → mental processes and activities (Dictionary.com).

M.E. mynd(e), from O.E. gemynd "memory, remembrance; thought, purpose" (cf. Gothic muns "thought," munan "to think;" ON minni "mind;" Ger. Minne (archaic) "love," originally "memory"), from PIE root *men- "think, remember;" cf. Pers. mân, man "mind, thought;" Av. man- "to think;" Skt. matih "thought," Gk. mania "madness," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea," O.C.S. mineti "to believe, think," Russ. pamjat "memory."

Ment, from Mid.Pers. mênitan "to think," Av. mainyeite "he thinks;" O.Pers. man- "to think," maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" Av. mân- "to think," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."

mineral
  کانی   
kâni (#)

Fr.: minéral   

A naturally occurring inorganic solid. The internal crystalline structure of a mineral is controlled by its elemental composition.

From M.L. minerale "something mined," from neuter of mineralis "pertaining to mines," from minera "mine."

Kâni "mineral," from kân "mine," from kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs").

mini black hole
  مینی‌سیه‌چال   
mini siyahcâl

Fr.: mini corps noir   

A black hole of mass as low as 10-6 gram supposed to have formed in the early Universe following the Big Bang event. Same as primordial black hole.

Mini a shortening of → minimum; → black hole.

minimum
  کمینه   
kaminé (#)

Fr.: minimum   

The least value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of maximum.

From L. minimum "smallest" (thing), neuter of minimus "smallest," superlative of → minor "smaller."

Kaminé, from kamin superlative of kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few." Keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + nuance suffix.

minimum deviation
  کژرفت ِ کمینه   
kažraft-e kaminé

Fr.: déviation minimale   

Same as → angle of minimum deviation.

minimum; → deviation.

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