An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 912
analytical mechanics
  مکانیک ِ آنالسی   
mekânik-e ânâlasi

Fr.: mécanique analytique   

A branch of → mechanics based on → variational principle that describes systems by their → Lagrangian or → Hamiltonian. Analytical mechanics provides a formalism that is different from that of Newton and does not use the concept of force. Among other things, analytical mechanics gives a more simple description of continuous and constrained systems. Moreover, its mathematical structure allows it an easier transition to quantum mechanical topics.

analytical; → mechanics.

analyze
  آنالسیدن، آناکاویدن   
ânâlasidan, ânâkâvidan

Fr.: analyser   

Infinitive of → analysis.

analyzer
  آنالسگر، آناکاوگر   
ânâlasgar, ânâkâvgar

Fr.: analyseur   

An optical device by which the direction of → polarization of a beam of light can be detected. Usually the light has been passed through a → polarizer before arriving at the analyzer.

Agent noun, from → analyze + → -er.

anamorphic
  آناریختی، آناریخت‌مند   
ânârixti, ânârixmand

Fr.: anamorphique   

The quality of an → anamorphic system.

ana- "up," + morphe "form," → morphology + → -ic.

anamorphic system
  راژمان ِ آناریخت، ~ آناریخت‌مند   
râžmân-e ânârixt, ~ ânârixtmand

Fr.: système anamorphique   

An optical system whose optical power, and imaging scale, differs in the two principal directions. See also → anamorphosis.

anamorphic; → system.

anamorphosis
  آناریخت‌مندی   
ânârixtmandi

Fr.: anamorphose   

1) Optics: The formation of a distorted image by an → anamorphic system.
2) Biology: The evolution from one type to another through a gradual and steady process of changes.
3) Art: A distorted image that appears in proportion when it is viewed from a specific point of view or reflected in a curved mirror, or with some other optical device.

From Gk. anamorphosis "transformation," noun of action from anamorphoein "to transform," from → ana- "up," + morphe "form" + -sis a suffix forming abstract nouns of action, process, state, condition, etc.

Ânârixtmandi, from ânâ- "up," + rixt "morphe," → morphology, + mand, → -ist + noun suffix -i.

Ananke [Jupiter XII]
  آننکه   
Ânanké

Fr.: Ananké   

The thirteenth of Jupiter's known satellites discovered by S.B. Nicholson in 1951. It orbits the planet at a mean distance of 21,200,000 km, and has a diameter of about 30 km.

In Gk. mythology, Ananke is the personification of destiny, unalterable necessity and fate; she is also the mother of Adrastea,

anastigmatic lens
  عدسی ِ گراور   
adasi-ye gerâ-var

Fr.: anastigmate   

A lens designed to correct → astigmatism.

astigmatism; → lens.

and
  اُ، و   
o, va

Fr.: et   

1) (Conjunction, used to connect grammatically coordinate words, phrases, or clauses) Along or together with; as well as; in addition to; besides; also; moreover. → if and only if.
2) (Conjunction) Added to; plus (Dictionary.com).

From M.E., from O.E., akin to O.H.G. unti "and."

Va "and," graphical corruption of o "and;" Mid.Pers. ut, u- "and;" O.Pers. utā; Av. uta- "and;" cf. Skt. utá; maybe also influenced by Av. a disjunctive particle (Skt. ) "or," occasionally used in the sense of "and;" ... "either, or;" cf. Sogd. βa, fa "and, or," "or."

Anderson bridge
  پل ِ اندرسون   
pol-e Anderson

Fr.: pont d'Anderson   

A six-branch modification of the → Maxwell bridge that measures → inductance in terms of → resistance and → capacitance.

A. Anderson (1891, Phil. Mag. (5) 31, 329); → bridge.

Andromeda
  آندرومدا، زن ِ به زنجیر بسته   
Ândromedâ, Zan-e bé Zanjir Basté (#)

Fr.: Andromède   

A northern constellation between → Perseus and → Pegasus located at approximately R.A. 1h, Dec. +40 deg. Abbreviation And, Genitive form Andromedae.

In Gk. mythology, Andromeda was the princess of Ethiopia, daughter of → Cepheus and → Cassiopeia. The queen Cassiopeia angered Poseidon by saying that Andromeda (or possibly Cassiopeia herself) was more beautiful than the Nereids. Poseidon sent a sea monster to prey upon the country; he could be appeased only by the sacrifice of the king's daughter. Andromeda in sacrifice was chained to a rock by the sea; but she was rescued by → Perseus, who killed the monster and later married her. Cassiopeia, Cepheus, and Andromeda were all set among the stars as constellations.

Zan-e bé Zanjir Basté "the chained woman," coined by the 11th century astronomer Biruni, from Ar. Emra'at al-mosalsalah "the chained woman," from the Gk. mythology.

Andromeda galaxy (M31, NGC 224)
  کهکشان ِ آندرومدا، ~ زن ِ به زنجیر بسته   
kahkašân-e Ândromedâ (#), ~ Zan-e bé Zanjir Basté (#)

Fr.: galaxie d'Andromède   

The nearest → spiral galaxy to our own and a major member of the → Local Group. It lies in the constellation → Andromeda and is the most remote object normally visible to the naked eye. The earliest known reference to this galaxy is by the Iranian astronomer Sufi who called it "the little cloud" in his Book of Fixed Stars (A.D. 964).

Andromeda; → galaxy.

Andromedids
  آندرومداییان   
Ândromedâiyân

Fr.: Andromédides   

A meteor shower which appears about 25 November with its → radiant located in the constellation → Andromeda. The Andromedids are the debris of → Biela's comet. The short-period comet, discovered in 1826, split into two parts in the middle of the 19th century and later vanished. Hence their alternative name Bielids.

Andromedids, from Andromeda constellation + → -ids suffix denoting "descendant of, belonging to the family of."

Ândromedâiyân, from Ândromedâ + -iyân, → -ids.

anemometer
  بادسنج   
bâdsanj (#)

Fr.: anémomètre   

An instrument for measuring and indicating the force or speed of the wind.

From Gk. anemos "wind" + → -meter.

Bâdsanj, from bâd "wind" + -sanj, → -meter.

angle
  زاویه   
zâviyé

Fr.: angle   

The figure formed by two lines extending from a common point; the figure formed by two intersecting planes (dihedral angle).

L. angulum (nominative angulus) "corner," a dim. form from PIE *ang-/*ank- "to bend". Cf. Skt. ankah "hook, bent," Gk. angkon "elbow," angkura "anchor," Lith. anka "loop," O.E. ancleo "ankle," O.H.G. ango "hook," Av. ank- "curved, crooked," Av. angušta- "toe," Mod.Pers. angošt, angol, angul "finger".

Zâviyé from Ar. zâwiyat "corner, angle".

angle of deviation
  زاویه‌ی ِ کژرفت   
zâviye-ye kažraft

Fr.: angle de déviation   

The angle between the → incident ray of light entering an → optical system (such as a prism) and the → refracted ray that emerges from the system. Because of the different indices of refraction for the different wavelengths of visible light, the angle of deviation varies with wavelength.

angle; → deviation.

angle of emergence
  زاویه‌ی ِ زمرچش   
zâviye-ye zomarceš

Fr.: angle d'émergence   

The angle of the light coming out of a medium. For a medium with parallel sides (such as a glass slab) it is equal to the angle of incidence.

angle; → emergence.

angle of incidence
  زاویه‌ی ِ فتاد   
zâviye-ye fotâd

Fr.: angle d'incidence   

The angle formed between a ray of light striking a surface and the normal to that surface at the point of incidence. Also called → incidence angle.

angle; → incidence.

angle of inclination
  زاویه‌ی ِ درکیل   
zâviye-ye darkil

Fr.: angle d'inclinaison   

1) General: The angle between one plane and another, or the angle formed by a reference axis and a given line.
2) Binary systems: The angle between the plane of the orbit and the → plane of the sky.
3) Rotating stars: The angle between the → equatorial plane and the → plane of the sky.

angle; → inclination.

angle of minimum deviation
  زاویه‌ی ِ کژرفت ِ کمینه   
zâviye-ye kažraft kaminé

Fr.: angle de déviation minimale   

The angle between the light entering and exiting the prism when the light passing through the prism is parallel to the prism's base. Angle of minimum deviation (D) is used to measure the → index of refraction (n) of the prism glass, because: n = sin [(A + D)/2]/sin (A/2), where A is the → prism angle.

angle; → minimum; → deviation.

<< < -ab ab- abo abs abs acc acc act act ada Adh ads aes age alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ans ant ant apo app app Aqu arc arg Arr ash ass ast ast Ata ato att aur aut axi > >>