An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 902
  ا-، ان-؛ بی-؛ نا-   
a- (#), an- (#); bi- (#); nâ- (#)

Fr.: an-   

Prefix same as → a- "not, without" occurring before a vowel or h in loanwords from Greek.


ânâ- (#)

Fr.: ana-   

Prefix meaning: 1) up, upward (anode); 2) back, backward (ananym); 3) again, anew (anagenesis); 4) exceedingly (anamorphism).

From Gk. ana- "up, on, upon, throughout, again," cognate with Av. ana "on, over, along," O.Pers. anâ "throughout," O.E. on; PIE base *ano- "on, upon, above".

Ânâ-, from ana, anâ, Av. and O.Pers. counterparts of Gk. ana-, as above.


Fr.: analemme   

The shape resembling a figure of 8 obtained by following the Sun's position in the sky at the same time of day throughout the year. It is a graphical presentation of the → equation of time. Because the Earth's orbit around the Sun is elliptical, the two loops of analemma have different sizes. Analemma figures for different latitudes or different times of day would appear slightly different. The analemma is widest in the period when the Earth is closest to the Sun (December). This is because in this situation the Earth advances in its orbit faster due to the stronger gravitational attraction of the Sun. On the other hand, since the Earth rotates at a constant rate, the Sun appears to rise earlier than average because the Earth advances further in its orbit in one day when the Earth is close to the Sun. The opposite occurs in June when the Earth is further from the Sun.

From L. analemma "the pedestal of a sundial," hence the sundial itself, from Gk. analemma "prop, support," from analambanein, from → ana- "up" + lambanein "to take".

Hurspicak from hur "Sun;" Av. hvar- "sun" (cf. Skt. surya; Gk. hlios; L. sol; O.H.G. sunna; Ger. Sonne; E. sun; PIE *sawel- "sun") + picak "a curled, a twisted figure or object," from picidan "to twist, invove, enttwine, coil."

analog-to-digital converter
  هاگردگر ِ آناگویه-رقمی   
hâgardgar-e ânâguyé-raqami

Fr.: convertisseur analogique-numérique   

In electronics, a device that converts the analog signal to → analog-to-digital units or counts.

analogue; → digital; → converter.

analog-to-digital unit (ADU)
  یکای ِ آناگویه-رقمی   
yekâ-ye ânâguyé-raqami

Fr.: unité analogue-numérique   

A number that represents a → charge-coupled device (CCD)'s output and is proportional to the → electron charge created by the → photons, plus the constant → bias offset. The relationship between the ADUs generated and the number of electrons acquired on the CCD is defined by the → CCD gain. Intensities given in ADUs provide a convenient method for comparing images and data generated by different cameras. Also referred to as → count and digital number. In most cases, the analog signal is digitalized by an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and fed into a computer where further manipulation and analysis are done on what the detector originally produced from the star's photons (Howell, S.B., Handbook of CCD Astronomy, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).

analogue; → digital; → unit.


Fr.: analogique   

Of, relating to, or based on analogy; expressing or implying analogy.

analogy + -i + → -al.


Fr.: analogue   

1) Similar or corresponding in some respect; having → analogy.
2) Biology: Similar in function but having different evolutionary origins, as the wings of birds and insects.
3) Chemistry: Similar in chemical properties and differing in chemical structure only with respect to one element or group.

L. analogus, from Gk. analogos "proportionate," → analogy.

  آناگویه؛ آناگو، آناگوییک   
ânâguyé; ânâgu, ânâguyik

Fr.: analogue, analogique   

1) (n.) Something that has → analogy to something else.
2) Chemistry: (n.) A chemical compound whose molecular structure is closely similar to that of another.
3) Relating to or using signals or information represented by a continuous variable physical quantity such as spatial position or voltage. Often contrasted with → digital.

From Fr. analogue, from Gk. analogon, → analogy.

analogue computer
  رایانگر ِ آناگوییک   
râyângar-e ânâguyik

Fr.: ordinateur analogique   

A computer in which data is stored and processed in the form of continually varying signals representing a physical quantity rather than in the form of individual numerical values. The simplest analogue computers are side rules, thermometers, voltmeters, and speedometers.

analogue; → computer.

ânâguyi (#)

Fr.: analogie   

1) A similarity or comparability between two things.
2) Math.: A general similarity between two problems or methods. Analogy is used to infer new theorems from existing ones. Hypotheses based on analogy must still be proved.
3) Logic: A form of reasoning which asserts that if two or more entities are similar in one or more respects, then they would be similar in other respects.
4) Biology: An analogous relationship.
5) Linguistics: The process by which a word or form is either created or changed according to existing patterns in the language.

M.E., from O.Fr. analogie or directly from L. analogia, from Gk. analogia "proportion," from → ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio; word, speech, reckoning," → -logy.

  آنالس، آناکاوی   
ânâlas, ânâkâvi

Fr.: analyse   

1) General: The separation of an intellectual or material whole into its constituent parts for individual study. The study of such constituent parts and their interrelationships in making up a whole (opposite of → synthesis).
2) Chemistry: The separation of a substance into its constituent elements to determine either their nature (qualitative analysis) or their proportions (quantitative analysis).
3) Mathematics: A branch of mathematics principally involving → differential and integral calculus, → sequences, and → series and concerned with → limits and → convergence.

From M.L. analysis, from Gk. analysis "a breaking up," from analyein "unloose," from ana- "up, throughout" + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to loosen, release, untie". The L. cognate and counterpart of this Gk. word, i.e. luere has formed the words solve, dissolve, solution. The Skt. cognate lu, lunoti "to cut, sever, mow, pluck, tear asunder, destroy," lava "cutting, plucking; what is cut; fragment, piece;" PIE *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart". The Eng. lose, loose and Ger. los derive from this root.

Ânâlas, from ânâ-, → ana-, + las "loose" ([Mo'in], Gilaki, Tabari, Tâleši, Aftari). We do not know the Av./O.Pers. counterparts of these Gk. las, lysis, lyein, but we believe that las and the following words probably derive from the above-mentioned PIE *leu-:
"slit, cut" (Tabari),
lâb, lâp, lib "slit, cut, piece, half" (Tabari),
lâpé "a cut piece of wood" [Mo'in],
lâpé kardan "to cut a timber along its length" [Mo'in],
lap "piece, big piece, big cut" [Mo'in]. This word was chosen by Farhangestân I for "lobe of the lung".
lâc "open, wide-open" (Tabari),
luš "torn" [Mo'in], also luš luš [Mo'in] "in pieces,"
lat "torn, piece" [Mo'in]. Compare with luta "cut, cut off" in Pali. Lat may also be a contraction of laxt.
lok "torn, piece" (Qâyeni),
lâš "slit" (Tabari),
lâš kardan "to pick, to pluck" [Mo'in],
latu "plough" (Tabari).
Ânâkâvidan, from ânâ- + kâvidan (kâftan) "to examine, investigate, search; dig," from kâv + infinitive suffix -idan; compare with Mod.Pres. kâvâk "hollow, empty," L. cavus "hollow" (E. derivatives: cavity, concave, cave, excavate), Gk. koilos "hollow."


Fr.: analytique   

Of or relating to analysis, in contrast with → synthetic. Also analytical.

M.L. analyticus, from Gk. analytikos, from analy-, → analysis, + -tikos, -tic, equivalent to → -ic.

Pertaining to ânâlas, → analysis.

analytic curve
  خم ِ آنالسی   
xam-e ânâlasi

Fr.: courbe analytique   

A curve whose parametric equations are real → analytic functions of a single real variable.

analytic; → curve.

analytic function
  کریای ِ آنالسی   
karyâ-ye ânâlasi

Fr.: fonction analytique   

A function which can be represented by a convergent → power series.

analytic; → function.

analytic geometry
  هندسه‌ی ِ آنالسی   
hendese-ye ânâlasi

Fr.: géométrie analytique   

The study of the geometry of figures by algebraic representation and manipulation of equations describing their positions, configurations, and separations.

analytic; → geometry.

analytic language
  زبان ِ آنالسی   
zabân-e ânâlasi

Fr.: langue analytique   

A language that is characterized largely by the fact that it depends on word order, rather than on inflections (grammatical endings), to convey sentence meanings. In an analytic language relations between nouns and adjectives are expressed using prepositions. English and (to a lesser extent) French, and Persian are considered analytic languages, while German and Russian are → synthetic languages.

analytic; → language.


Fr.: analytique   

Same as → analytic.

analysis; → -al.

analytical mechanics
  مکانیک ِ آنالسی   
mekânik-e ânâlasi

Fr.: mécanique analytique   

A branch of → mechanics based on → variational principle that describes systems by their → Lagrangian or → Hamiltonian. Analytical mechanics provides a formalism that is different from that of Newton and does not use the concept of force. Among other things, analytical mechanics gives a more simple description of continuous and constrained systems. Moreover, its mathematical structure allows it an easier transition to quantum mechanical topics.

analytical; → mechanics.

  آنالسیدن، آناکاویدن   
ânâlasidan, ânâkâvidan

Fr.: analyser   

Infinitive of → analysis.

  آنالسگر، آناکاوگر   
ânâlasgar, ânâkâvgar

Fr.: analyseur   

An optical device by which the direction of → polarization of a beam of light can be detected. Usually the light has been passed through a → polarizer before arriving at the analyzer.

Agent noun, from → analyze + → -er.

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