axtaršenâsi-ye Arabi (#)
Fr.: astronomie arabe
The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. Arab/Arabic is not meant as an ethnic but rather a linguistic term. In fact a large number of Non-Arab scholars, mainly Persians, Mongols, and Spanish people, wrote their works in Arabic. Even so, many astronomical works were also produced in the other languages of this civilization, especially Persian and in the later centuries Turkish. For example, the main → zijs were originally written in Persian, a notable example being the Zij of Ulugh Beg (c. A.D. 1394-1449), a landmark in precise observations before the Renaissance. Therefore, the term Arabic astronomy is misleading. It also creates a disparity with respect to Western scholars who wrote in Latin. The term "Latin astronomy" is meaningless and as far as these scholars are concerned, the Latin adjective is not specified. For example, the expressions like "the Latin astronomer Copernicus," "the Latin physicist Newton," or "the Latin philosopher Leibniz" are not used. See also → Islamic astronomy.
M.E. arabik, from O.Fr. arabique, from L. Arabicus; → astronomy.
Fr.: point d'Arago
Named for François Arago (1786-1853), French physicist; → point
1) Subject to individual will or judgment without restriction; contingent
solely upon one's discretion.
M.E., from O.Fr. arbitraire or directly from L. arbitrarius "depending on the will, uncertain," from → ad- "to" + baetere "to come, go."
1) In → graph theory, a → rooted tree
that has a natural orientation in which all → paths
are directed away from the → root. More specifically, a
→ directed graph in
which, for a → vertex u, called the
→ root, and any other vertex v,
there is exactly one → directed path
from u to v.
Šâkedâri, nous from šâkedâr, → arborescent.
Having the shape or characteristics of a tree in growth, structure, or appearance.
From Fr. arborescent, from L. arborescent-, p.p. of arborescere "to grow into a tree," from arbor, arboris "tree."
1) General: Something shaped like a → curve
or → arch.
M.E. ark, from M.Fr. arc "bow," from L. arcus "bow, arch" (cf. Goth. arhwazna "arrow," O.E. earh), PIE *arqu- "bowed, curved."
Kamân "arc, bow" from Mid.Pers. kamân, related to xam "curve," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent," Gk. kampe "a corner, a joint," L. campus "a field," Lith. kampus "corner," PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook."
kamân-daqiqé, daqiqe-ye kamâni
Fr.: minute de degré
A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.
arc of light
Fr.: arc de lumière
arc of separation
Fr.: arc de séparation
arc of vision
Fr.: arc de vision
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni
Fr.: seconde de degré
A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.
Fr.: spectre d'étincelle
The spectrum produced by an atom or mixture of atoms as a result of vaporization within an electric arc generated between two electrodes.
1) A curved structure, normally in the vertical plane, that spans an opening.
M.E. arch(e), from O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus "a bow," → arc.
Taq "arch," from tâk, contraction of târak, → vertex.
The study that deals with the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric peoples (season events, calendars, observing sites, astronomical alignments) and its influence on their cultures and societies (mythologies, religions, life). Archaeoastronomy covers the intersection between astronomy and archaeology. Same as → astroarchaeology, megalithic astronomy.
Archeoastronomy, from L. archaeo-, archeo "ancient; earlier; primitive," from Gk. arkhaio-, from arkhaios "ancient" + → astronomy.
Bâstânaxtaršenâsi, from bâstân "ancient" + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.
Fr.: arché-, archi
A prefix meaning "principal, prior, original, first, early" Same as archi-. → archetype.
From Gk. arkhe-, from arckhon "ruler," noun use of p.p. of arkhein "to rule."
Sar-, from sar "top, summit, the capital of a pillar," → head.
Fr.: amas des Arches
One of the three → Galactic center clusters supposed to be the densest young → massive star cluster in the Milky Way. It contains the richest collection of → O stars and → WN Wolf-Rayet stars in any cluster in the Galaxy, thus representing the largest collection of the most massive stars in the Galaxy. With its estimated age of 2-3 million years, the Arches cluster is the youngest of the massive clusters in the Galactic center. → Quintuplet cluster; → Central cluster (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).
Arches, from the presence of Galactic center thermal → arched filaments, about 100 → light-years in projection from the Galactic center (Morris & Yusef-Zadeh, 1985, AJ 90, 2511), from M.E. arche, O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus, → arc; → cluster.
The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype (Dictionary.com).
Fr.: principe d'Archimède
A body immersed totally or partially in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. → buoyancy.
Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC - c. 212 BC), Greek mathematician and inventor; → principle.
Arašmidos altered form of Archimedes in classical Ar. texts; parvaz, → principle.
1) The art or practice of designing and building structures.
M.E., from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus "architect," from Gk. arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" + tekton "builder, carpenter," → technique.
Mehrâzik, from mehrâz literally "chief mason," from meh- "great, large," → high, + râz "mason, builder" (Borhân-e Qâte'), from Mid.Pers. râz "builder, architect," probably related to O.Pers. râs-, Av. râz- "to direct, set, put in line" (with many cognates in Pers., such as râst "straight, direct, true;" raj, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"); cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -ik, → -ics.
Any extensive record or collection of data.
Archive, from Fr. archives, from L. archivum, from Gk. arkheion "government house, town hall," from arkhe "government," from arkhein "to rule".
Bâygâni, maybe from *pâygâni, from pây-, pâyidan "to watch, guard, take care, conserve" + -gân, suffix referring to group, collection, + -i, noun-forming suffix.