An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 644
ephemeris time (ET)
  زمان ِ روزیجی   
zamân-e ruziji

Fr.: Temps des éphémérides   

The uniform time-scale used as the independent variable to calculate the orbits in the solar system prior to 1984. Ephemeris Time was adopted in 1960 to deal with irregularities in the → Earth's rotation that had been found to affect the course of mean solar time. The definition of Ephemeris Time is based on Newcomb's analytical theory of the Earth's motion around the Sun (Newcomb 1898), according to which the geometric mean longitude of the Sun with respect to the Earth-Moon barycenter is expressed by:
L = 279° 41' 48".04 + 129 602 768".13 T + 1".089 T2,
where L refers to the → mean equinox of date while T measures time from noon 1900 January 0 GMT in Julian centuries of 36525 days. Ephemeris Time is therefore defined as the instant near the beginning of the calendar year A.D. 1900 when the mean longitude of the Sun was 279° 41' 48".04, at which instant the measure of ET was 1900 January 0, 12h precisely. In this system the fundamental unit was the → ephemeris second, which was defined so that the → tropical year at the epoch 1900.0 should be exactly 31 556 925,9747 seconds of ephemerides. Ephemeris Time was inconvenient in many ways and was supeseded with the → Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT), whose fundamental unit is the SI second.

ephemeris; → time.

ephemeris transit
  گذر ِ روزیجی   
gozar-e ruziji

Fr.: transit au méridien des éphémérides   

The passage of a celestial body or point across the → ephemeris meridian.

ephemeris; → transit.


Fr.: épi-   

Prefix meaning "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition."

Gk. epi- "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition," cognate with O.Pers./Av. apiy-, aipi- "upon, toward, along; also; however;" Skt. api "also, besides."

Prefix api-, from O.Pers./Av. apiy-, aipi-, as above.

  ۱) فلک ِ تدویر؛ ۲) اپی-چرخه   
1) falak-e tadvir (#); 2) apicarxé

Fr.: épicycle   

1) In → Ptolemaic system, a circular → orbit of a body around a point that itself orbits circularly another point. Such a system was formulated to explain some → planetary orbits in terms of → circular motions in a → geocentric cosmology.
2a) Math.: A circle that rolls, externally or internally on another circle, generating an → epicycloid or → hypocycloid.
2b) In → galactic dynamics models describing the → spiral arms, a → perturbation of simple circular orbits. → epicyclic theory.

epi-; → cycle.

1) Falak-e tadvir, from Ar. falak al-tadwir, from falak "sphere" + tadwir "causing to turn in a circle."
2) → epi-; → cycle.


Fr.: épicyclique   

Of or pertaining to an → epicycle.

epicycle; → -ic.

epicyclic frequency
  بسامد ِ اپی-چرخه‌ای   
basâmad-e apicarxe-yi

Fr.: fréquence épicyclique   

In the → epicyclic theory of Galactic rotation, the frequency at which a star in the → Galactic disk describes an ellipse around its mean circular orbit. The epicyclic frequency relates to the → Oort's constants. In the solar neighborhood the epicyclic frequency is about 32 km s-1 kpc-1.

epicyclic; → frequency.

epicyclic oscillation
  نوش ِ اپی-چرخه‌ای   
naveš-e apicarxe-yi

Fr.: oscillation épicyclique   

In a → disk galaxy, the motion of a star about the orbital → guiding center when it is displaced radially. See also → epicyclic frequency, → epicyclic theory.

epicyclic; → oscillation.

epicyclic theory
  نگره‌ی ِ اپی-چرخه‌ای   
negare-ye apicarxe-yi

Fr.: théorie épicyclique   

The theory that describes the Galactic dynamics, that is the orbits of stars and gas clouds in the → Galactic disk, as well as the spiral → density wave. Formulated by Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), the epicyclic theory assumes that orbits are circular with small deviations. Star orbits are described by the superposition of two motions: i) a rotation of the star (epicenter) around the Galactic center at the circular angular velocity, Ω, and ii) a retrograde elliptical motion at → epicyclic frequency, κ. The epicyclic motion in the Galactic plane occurs in a retrograde sense to conserve → angular momentum. In general Ω and κ are different and, therefore, orbits do not close. However, seen by an observer who rotates with the epicenter, orbits are closed ellipses.

epicyclic; → theory.


Fr.: épicycloïde   

A curve traced by a point of a circle that rolls on the outside of a fixed circle. This curve was described by the Gk. mathematicians and astronomer Hipparchus, who made use of it to account for the apparent movement of many of the heavenly bodies.

epi-; → cycloid.


Fr.: Épiméthée   

The fifth of → Saturn's known satellites. It has a mean radius of 55 x 69 km and orbits its planet at a mean distance of 151,422 km. It shares the same → horseshoe orbit with → Janus. Epimetheus was discovered by Richard L. Walker in 1966. Also known as Saturn XI.

In Gk. mythology, brother of → Prometheus and → Atlas, and husband of → Pandora. His task was to populate the Earth with animals.


Fr.: épimorphisme   

A → morphism f : Y → X if, for any two morphisms u,v : X → Z, u f = v f  implies u = v.

epi-; → morphism.


Fr.: épisode   

1) An incident in the course of a series of events.
2) An incident, scene, etc., within a narrative, usually fully developed and either integrated within the main story or digressing from it (

From Fr. épisode from Gk. epeisodion "addition," noun use of neuter of epeisodios "coming in besides," from → epi- "in addition" + eisodos "a coming in, entrance" (from eis"into" + hodos "way," → period).

Apyâ, literally "coming in besides," from api-, → epi-, + â- present stem of âmadan "to come," → rise.


Fr.: épisodique   

1) Pertaining to or of the nature of an episode.
2) Divided into separate or tenuously related parts or sections.
3) Occurring sporadically or incidentally (

episode; → -ic.

šenaxtšenâsi (#)

Fr.: épistémologie   

A branch of philosophy that investigates the possibility, origins, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.

From Gk. episteme "knowledge," from Ionic Gk. epistasthai "to understand," literally "overstand," from → epi- "over, near" + histasthai "to stand;" cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," → standard; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

From šenaxt, → knowledge, + -šenâsi, → -logy.


Fr.: époque   

1) The date for which → orbital elements or the positions of celestial objects are calculated. Specifying the epoch is important because the apparent positions of objects in the sky change gradually due to → precession and → nutation, while orbital elements change due to the gravitational effects of the → planets. The standard epoch used in ephemerides (→ ephemeris) and stellar catalogues at present is January 1, 2000, 12h (written also as 2000.0).
2) A long period of time usually marked by some distinctive development or series of events.
See also:
current cosmological epoch, → electroweak epoch, → epoch angle, → epoch of thermalization, → Julian epoch, → polarity epoch, → recombination epoch, → standard epoch.

From M.L. epocha, from Gk. epokhe "pause, cessation, fixed point," from epekhein "to pause, take up a position," from epi- "on" + ekhein "to hold, to have;" cf. Av. hazah- "power, violence, superiority;" Skt. sahate "he masters," sáhas- "power, violence, might;" Goth. sigis; O.H.G. sigu; O.E. sige "victory;" PIE base *segh- "to hold."

Zimé, from Mid.Pers. zim "time, year, winter," from Av. zyam-, zayan- "winter," probably related to zaman "time" + nuance suffix .

epoch angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ زیمه   
zâviye-ye zimé

Fr.: angle de phase initial   

Same as the → initial phase angle.

epoch; → angle.

epoch of thermalization
  زیمه‌ی ِ یکگرمایی   
zime-ye yekgarmâyi

Fr.: époque de thermalisation   

The period during the → early Universe before the → recombination era when the photons were hot enough to ionize hydrogen. The density was so high that the interactions between → matter and → radiation were very numerous. Therefore, matter and photons were in constant contact and their → temperatures were the same. As a result, the radiation became → thermalized, i.e. the → electromagnetic spectrum of the radiation became that of a → blackbody, a process called → thermalization. Since the time of recombination the photons of → cosmic background radiation have been free to travel uninhibited by interactions with matter. Thus, their distribution of energy is a perfect → blackbody curve, as predicted by the → Big Bang theory and shown by several observations, such as → Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), → Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and → Planck Satellite.

epoch; → thermalization.

EPR paradox
  پارادخش ِ EPR   
pârâdaxš-e EPR

Fr.: paradoxe EPR   

A thought experiment developed in 1935 by A. Einstein (1879-1955), Boris Podolsky (1896-1966), and Nathan Rosen (1909-1995) to demonstrate that there is a fundamental inconsistency in → quantum mechanics. They imagined two physical systems that are allowed to interact initially so that they will subsequently be defined by a single quantum mechanical state. For example, a neutral → pion at rest which decays into a pair of → photons. The pair of photons is described by a single two-particle → wave function. Once separated, the two photons are still described by the same wave function, and a measurement of one → observable of the first system will determine the measurement of the corresponding observable of the second system. For example, if photon 1 is found to have → spin up along the x-axis, then photon 2 must have spin down along the x-axis, since the final total → angular momentum of the two-photon system must be the same as the angular momentum of the initial state. This means that we know the spin of photon 2 even without measuring it. Likewise, the measurement of another observable of the first system will determine the measurement of the corresponding observable of the second system, even though the systems are no longer physically linked in the traditional sense of local coupling (→ quantum entanglement). So, EPR argued that quantum mechanics was not a complete theory, but it could be corrected by postulating the existence of → hidden variables that furthermore would be "local". According to EPR, the specification of these local hidden parameters would predetermine the result of measuring any observable of the physical system. However, in 1964 John S. Bell developed a theorem, → Bell's inequality, to test for the existence of these hidden variables. He showed that if the inequality was satisfied, then no local hidden variable theory can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. → Aspect experiment.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen: "Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" Phys. Rev. 41, 777 (15 May 1935); → paradox.

  هموگ، برابر   
hamug, barâbar (#)

Fr.: égale   

As great as; like or alike in quantity, degree, value.

From L. æqualis "uniform, identical, equal," from æquus "level, even, just," of unknown origin, + -alis, → -al.

Hamug, from Mid.Pers. hamôg "equal, like," from ham "the same; together; also" (O.Pers./Av. ham-; cf. Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same;" Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-) + suffix -og/-ok/-uk, as in nêrog "force" (from nar "man, male"), nêvakôk "good, nice" (from nêvak "good, beautiful, nice, favorable"), mastôk "drunk" (from mast "drunk, drunken"), câpuk "quick; active," sapuk "light, brisk."

  هموگی، برابری   

Fr.: égalité   

1) The state or quality of being equal.
2) Math.: A → statement of two → mathematical objects being equal. Like → equations, equalities are written as two mathematical objects connected by the → equality sign.

M.E. from L. aequalitat-, stem of aequalitats, → equal + -ity.

Hamugi noun of hamug, → equal.

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