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ephemeris time (ET) zamân-e ruziji Fr.: Temps des éphémérides The uniform time-scale used as the independent variable
to calculate the orbits in the solar system prior to 1984. Ephemeris Time was adopted in
1960 to deal with irregularities in the → Earth's rotation
that had been found to affect the
course of mean solar time. The definition of Ephemeris Time is based on Newcomb's analytical
theory of the Earth's motion around the Sun (Newcomb 1898), according to which the geometric
mean longitude of the Sun with respect to the Earth-Moon barycenter is expressed by: |
ephemeris transit gozar-e ruziji Fr.: transit au méridien des éphémérides The passage of a celestial body or point across the → ephemeris meridian. |
epi- api- Fr.: épi- Prefix meaning "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition." Gk. epi- "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition," cognate with O.Pers./Av. apiy-, aipi- "upon, toward, along; also; however;" Skt. api "also, besides." Prefix api-, from O.Pers./Av. apiy-, aipi-, as above. |
epicycle 1) falak-e tadvir (#); 2) apicarxé Fr.: épicycle 1) In → Ptolemaic system, a circular
→ orbit of a body around a point that itself
orbits circularly another point. Such a system was formulated to explain some
→ planetary
orbits in terms of → circular
motions in a → geocentric
cosmology. 1) Falak-e tadvir, from Ar. falak al-tadwir, from falak
"sphere" + tadwir "causing to turn in a circle." |
epicyclic apicarxe-yi Fr.: épicyclique Of or pertaining to an → epicycle. |
epicyclic frequency basâmad-e apicarxe-yi Fr.: fréquence épicyclique In the → epicyclic theory of Galactic rotation, the frequency at which a star in the → Galactic disk describes an ellipse around its mean circular orbit. The epicyclic frequency relates to the → Oort's constants. In the solar neighborhood the epicyclic frequency is about 32 km s^{-1} kpc^{-1}. |
epicyclic oscillation naveš-e apicarxe-yi Fr.: oscillation épicyclique In a → disk galaxy, the motion of a star about the orbital → guiding center when it is displaced radially. See also → epicyclic frequency, → epicyclic theory. → epicyclic; → oscillation. |
epicyclic theory negare-ye apicarxe-yi Fr.: théorie épicyclique The theory that describes the Galactic dynamics, that is the orbits of stars and gas clouds in the → Galactic disk, as well as the spiral → density wave. Formulated by Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), the epicyclic theory assumes that orbits are circular with small deviations. Star orbits are described by the superposition of two motions: i) a rotation of the star (epicenter) around the Galactic center at the circular angular velocity, Ω, and ii) a retrograde elliptical motion at → epicyclic frequency, κ. The epicyclic motion in the Galactic plane occurs in a retrograde sense to conserve → angular momentum. In general Ω and κ are different and, therefore, orbits do not close. However, seen by an observer who rotates with the epicenter, orbits are closed ellipses. |
epicycloid apicarxzâd Fr.: épicycloïde A curve traced by a point of a circle that rolls on the outside of a fixed circle. This curve was described by the Gk. mathematicians and astronomer Hipparchus, who made use of it to account for the apparent movement of many of the heavenly bodies. |
Epimetheus Epimeteus Fr.: Épiméthée The fifth of → Saturn's known satellites. It has a mean radius of 55 x 69 km and orbits its planet at a mean distance of 151,422 km. It shares the same → horseshoe orbit with → Janus. Epimetheus was discovered by Richard L. Walker in 1966. Also known as Saturn XI. In Gk. mythology, brother of → Prometheus and → Atlas, and husband of → Pandora. His task was to populate the Earth with animals. |
epimorphism api-rixtmandi Fr.: épimorphisme A → morphism f : Y → X if, for any two morphisms u,v : X → Z, u f = v f implies u = v. |
episode apyâ Fr.: épisode 1) An incident in the course of a series of events. From Fr. épisode from Gk. epeisodion "addition," noun use of neuter of epeisodios "coming in besides," from → epi- "in addition" + eisodos "a coming in, entrance" (from eis"into" + hodos "way," → period). Apyâ, literally "coming in besides," from api-, → epi-, + â- present stem of âmadan "to come," → rise. |
episodic apyâyi Fr.: épisodique 1) Pertaining to or of the nature of an episode. |
epistemology šenaxtšenâsi (#) Fr.: épistémologie A branch of philosophy that investigates the possibility, origins, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. From Gk. episteme "knowledge," from Ionic Gk. epistasthai "to understand," literally "overstand," from → epi- "over, near" + histasthai "to stand;" cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," → standard; PIE base *sta- "to stand." |
epoch zimé Fr.: époque 1) The date for which → orbital elements or the positions
of celestial objects are calculated. Specifying the epoch is important
because the apparent positions of objects in the sky change gradually due to
→ precession and → nutation,
while orbital elements change due to the gravitational effects of the
→ planets.
The standard epoch used in ephemerides (→ ephemeris)
and stellar catalogues at present is January 1, 2000, 12h (written also as 2000.0). From M.L. epocha, from Gk. epokhe "pause, cessation, fixed point," from epekhein "to pause, take up a position," from epi- "on" + ekhein "to hold, to have;" cf. Av. hazah- "power, violence, superiority;" Skt. sahate "he masters," sáhas- "power, violence, might;" Goth. sigis; O.H.G. sigu; O.E. sige "victory;" PIE base *segh- "to hold." Zimé, from Mid.Pers. zim "time, year, winter," from Av. zyam-, zayan- "winter," probably related to zaman "time" + nuance suffix -é. |
epoch angle zâviye-ye zimé Fr.: angle de phase initial Same as the → initial phase angle. |
epoch of thermalization zime-ye yekgarmâyi Fr.: époque de thermalisation The period during the → early Universe before the → recombination era when the photons were hot enough to ionize hydrogen. The density was so high that the interactions between → matter and → radiation were very numerous. Therefore, matter and photons were in constant contact and their → temperatures were the same. As a result, the radiation became → thermalized, i.e. the → electromagnetic spectrum of the radiation became that of a → blackbody, a process called → thermalization. Since the time of recombination the photons of → cosmic background radiation have been free to travel uninhibited by interactions with matter. Thus, their distribution of energy is a perfect → blackbody curve, as predicted by the → Big Bang theory and shown by several observations, such as → Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), → Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and → Planck Satellite. → epoch; → thermalization. |
EPR paradox pârâdaxš-e EPR Fr.: paradoxe EPR A thought experiment developed in 1935 by A. Einstein (1879-1955), Boris Podolsky (1896-1966), and Nathan Rosen (1909-1995) to demonstrate that there is a fundamental inconsistency in → quantum mechanics. They imagined two physical systems that are allowed to interact initially so that they will subsequently be defined by a single quantum mechanical state. For example, a neutral → pion at rest which decays into a pair of → photons. The pair of photons is described by a single two-particle → wave function. Once separated, the two photons are still described by the same wave function, and a measurement of one → observable of the first system will determine the measurement of the corresponding observable of the second system. For example, if photon 1 is found to have → spin up along the x-axis, then photon 2 must have spin down along the x-axis, since the final total → angular momentum of the two-photon system must be the same as the angular momentum of the initial state. This means that we know the spin of photon 2 even without measuring it. Likewise, the measurement of another observable of the first system will determine the measurement of the corresponding observable of the second system, even though the systems are no longer physically linked in the traditional sense of local coupling (→ quantum entanglement). So, EPR argued that quantum mechanics was not a complete theory, but it could be corrected by postulating the existence of → hidden variables that furthermore would be "local". According to EPR, the specification of these local hidden parameters would predetermine the result of measuring any observable of the physical system. However, in 1964 John S. Bell developed a theorem, → Bell's inequality, to test for the existence of these hidden variables. He showed that if the inequality was satisfied, then no local hidden variable theory can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. → Aspect experiment. A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen: "Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" Phys. Rev. 41, 777 (15 May 1935); → paradox. |
equal hamug, barâbar (#) Fr.: égale As great as; like or alike in quantity, degree, value. From L. æqualis "uniform, identical, equal," from æquus "level, even, just," of unknown origin, + -alis, → -al. Hamug, from Mid.Pers. hamôg "equal, like," from ham "the same; together; also" (O.Pers./Av. ham-; cf. Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same;" Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-) + suffix -og/-ok/-uk, as in nêrog "force" (from nar "man, male"), nêvakôk "good, nice" (from nêvak "good, beautiful, nice, favorable"), mastôk "drunk" (from mast "drunk, drunken"), câpuk "quick; active," sapuk "light, brisk." |
equality hamugi Fr.: égalité 1) The state or quality of being equal. M.E. from L. aequalitat-, stem of aequalitats, → equal + -ity. Hamugi noun of hamug, → equal. |
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