An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 655
enrich
  پرداریدن، پردار کردن   
pordâridan, pordâr kardan

Fr.: enrichir   

To increase the → concentration or → abundance of a specified → component or → isotope in a material.

From en- a prefix forming verbs with a particular sense + → rich.

Pordâridan, pordâr kardan, infinitives from pordâr, → rich.

enriched
  پرداریده   
pordâridé

Fr.: enrichi   

Supplied with abundance of something. → enriched gas, → enriched uranium.

Past participle of → enrich.

enriched gas
  گاز ِ پرداریده   
gâz-e pordâridé

Fr.: gaz enrichi   

A gas, usually → interstellar, in which the → abundance of particular chemical or atomic species is higher than the expected values.

enriched; → gas.

enriched uranium
  اورانیوم ِ پرداریده   
urânium-e pordâridé

Fr.: uranium enrichi   

Uranium in which the → proportion of the → isotope U-235 has been increased (above the 0.7% value in natural uranium).

enriched; → uranium.

enrichment
  پردارش   
pordâreš

Fr.: enrichissement   

1) A process that changes the → isotopic ratio in a material. For example, for uranium the ratio of U-235 to U-238 may be increased by gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride.
2) → chemical enrichment.

Verbal noun of → enrich.

enstatite
  انستاتیت   
enstâtit

Fr.: enstatite   

A relatively common mineral, magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) found in metamorphic and some igneous rocks as well as in stony and iron meteorites.

From Gk. enstates "resistor", because it resists high temperatures.

enstatite chondrite
  کوندریت ِ استاتیت   
kondrite-e enstâtit

Fr.: chondrite enstatite   

A rare kind of → meteorite containing the → enstatite mineral. These meteorites are thought to comprise only about 2% of the chondrites that fall on Earth. Also called → E-type chondrite.

enstatite; → chondrite.

entangle
  هم‌گوریدن، هم‌پیچیدن   
ham-guridan, ham-picidan

Fr.: emmêler   

To wrap or twist together; to intertwine.

From → en- "in," + tangle, from M.E. tangilen, tagilen "to entangle."

Hamgureš, from ham- "together," → com-, + guridan "to become tangled, as threads or hairs, entwine," probably related to greh "knot," → node.
Hampicidan, from ham- + picidan "to twist, entwine, coil."

entanglement
  هم‌گورش، هم‌پیچی   
ham-gureš, ham-pici

Fr.: emmêlment   

The act of entangling. The state of being entangled.

Verbal noun of → entangle; → -ment.

enter
  ۱) در‌آمدن، در‌آییدن؛ ۲) در‌آیاندن   
1) darâmadan, darâyidan; 2) darâyândan

Fr.: 1) entrer; 2) faire entrer   

1) To come or go in.
2) To put in or insert. See also → entrance, → entry.

M.E. entren, from O.Fr. entrer, from L. intrare "to enter," from intra "within," → inter-.

Darâmadan, from dar, → in-, + âmadan, "to come," → egress; darâyidan, from dar- "in," + ây preset stem of âmadan, → assembly, + -idan infinitive suffix; darâyândan transitive of darâyidan.

enthalpy
  درونگرمی   
darungarmi (#)

Fr.: enthalpie   

A quantity associated with a thermodynamic system and given by H = U + pV, where H is the enthalpy, U the internal energy, p the pressure, and V the volume.

Gk. enthalp(ein) "to warm in," from en- "in, into, within" + thalpein "to warm" + -y a suffix used in the formation of action nouns from verbs.

Darungarmi, from darun "in, into, within" (Mid.Pers. andarôn "inside," from andar, → inter- + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + garm "warm" (Mid.Pers. garm; O.Pers./Av. garema- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" Gk. thermos "warm;" L. formus "warm," fornax "oven;" P.Gmc. *warmaz; O.E. wearm; O.H.G., Ger. warm; from PIE base *ghworm-/*ghwerm-) + -i a suffix used in the formation of action nouns from verbs.

entitle
  سرال دادن، سرالیدن   
sarâl dâdan, sarâlidan

Fr.: intituler   

To give a particular title to.

From en-, → in-, + → title.

entitled
  با سرال ِ، سرالیده   
bâ sarâl-e, sarâlidé

Fr.: intitulé   

Having the title.

Past participle of → entitle.

entity
  هستار   
hastâr (#)

Fr.: entité   

1) A real thing.
2) Being or existence, especially when considered as independent, separate, or self-contained.
3) Computer science: Something about which data is recorded. Entities have → attributes.

From L.L. entitatem, from L.L. ens (genitive entis) "being, thing," from esse "to be," cognate with Pers. hast, ast, as below.

Hastâr, from hast (noun), as in hast-o-nist, or contraction of hasti "existence," from hastan "to be" (variant astan, ast "is;" Mid.Pers. (h)ast "is," (h)astih "existence;" O.Pers. ah- "to be," astiy "is;" Av. ah- "to be" (ahmī, ahī, astī); cf. Skt. as- "to be," ásti "is;" Gk. esti "is;" L. est "is;" Russ. yest "is;" Goth. ist; E. is), + suffix -âr (as in padidâr). Alternatively, from hast (noun), as above, + -âr contraction of -dâr (as in dustâr) present stem of dâštan "to have, to possess" (Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

entrance
  ۱، ۲) در‌آیش؛ ۲) در‌آیگاه   
1, 2) darâyeš; 2) darâygâh

Fr.: entrée   

1) An act of entering, as into a place or upon new duties.
2) A point or place of entering; an opening or passage for entering, as a doorway (Dictionary.com). → entrance pupil, → entrance slit.

M.E. entraunce, from M.Fr. entrance, from → enter + → -ance.

Darâyeš, verbal noun of darâmadan, darâyidan, → enter; darâygâh with space suffix -gâh.

entrance pupil
  مردمک ِ در‌آیش   
mardomak-e darâyeš

Fr.: pupille d'entrée   

In an → optical system, the image of the → aperture stop formed in → object space. See also → exit pupil.

entrance; → pupil.

entrance slit
  شکاف ِ در‌آیش   
šekâf-e darâyeš

Fr.: fente d'entrée   

A thin slit in an opaque screen by which light enters a spectrograph.

entrance; → slit.

entropy
  درگاشت   
dargâšt (#)

Fr.: entropie   

1) A measure of the energy that is not available for work during a → thermodynamic process. It is defined by dS = dQ/T, where dS is the differential change in entropy, dQ is the differential amount of heat introduced to the system in a → reversible process, and T the → absolute temperature of the system. Entropy remains constant during → reversible processes and increases during → irreversible processes without ever decreasing. According to the → second law of thermodynamics, an → isolated system evolves toward a state of maximum entropy. See also → Maxwell's demon.
2) Statistical physics: A measure of → disorder of the configuration of → microstates which make up a → macrostate. → Boltzmann's relation, → Boltzmann's entropy formula. Highly disordered systems have a large entropy; highly ordered systems have low entropy.
3) Math.: A measure of information content. → information entropy.

From Ger. Entropie, coined 1865 by physicist Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888) from Gk. entropia "a turning toward," from en- "in" + trope "a turning, change," related to tropos "a turn, way, manner," from tropein "to turn," from PIE base *trep- "to turn" (cf. L. trepit "he turns").

Dargâšt, from dar "in" + gâšt present stem of gâštan "to cause to revolve, to turn," transitive of gaštan, variant gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vartati; L. vertere; O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

entry
  در‌آیه   
darâyé (#)

Fr.: entrée   

1) An act of entering; → entrance.
2) Permission or right to enter; access.
3) A place of ingress or entrance, especially an entrance hall or vestibule.
4) The act of entering or recording something in a book, register, list, etc. The statement, item, etc., so entered or recorded (Dictionary.com).

M.E. entre(e), from O.Fr. entree, from L. intrata, p.p. of intrare "to → enter."

Darâyé, noun from darây present stem of darâmadan, darâyidan, → enter, + noun suffix.

envelope
  پوشه   
pušé (#)

Fr.: enveloppe   

A shell of dust or gas expanding out from an astronomical object such as a star or a comet's nucleus.

From Fr. enveloppe, from O.Fr. envoloper "to envelop," from en- "in" + voloper "wrap up," of obscure origin, perhaps related to M.L. aluppa "a very thin piece or slice of wood" and influenced by L. volvere "to roll."

Pušé, noun from pušidan "to cover; to put on;" Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."

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