An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 649
extragalactic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ استرکهکشانی، ~ برون‌کهکشانی   
axtaršenâi-ye ostar-kahkašâni, ~ borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: astronomie extragalactique   

The branch of astronomy that deals with objects beyond the Milky Way, especially galaxies and quasars.

extragalactic; → astronomy.

extragalactic background light (EBL)
  نور ِ پس-زمینه‌ی ِ استر-کهکشانی   
nur-e paszimine-ye ostarkahkeši

Fr.: lumière du fond extragalactique   

The integrated intensity of all of the light emitted throughout the history of the Universe across the whole of the → electromagnetic spectrum, including those which are not individually detected. The EBL spectrum includes cosmological backgrounds associated with either primordial phenomena, such as the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), or photons emitted by stars, galaxies and → active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to → nucleosynthesis or other → radiative processes, including → dust scattering, → absorption and reradiation. The EBL may also contain signals that are diffuse and extended, including high-energy photons associated with dark matter particle decays or annihilation.

extragalactic; → background; → light.

extraordinary
  استرشونیک   
ostaršunik

Fr.: extraordinaire   

1) Beyond what is usual, ordinary, regular, or established.
2) Exceptional in character, amount, extent, degree, etc. (Dictionary.com). → unordinary.

extra-; → ordinary.

extraordinary ray
  پرتو ِ استرشونیک   
partov-e ostaršunik

Fr.: rayon extraordinaire   

When a beam of → unpolarized light is incident on a → doubly refracting crystal, there will be two refracted rays. The ray for which → Snell's law does not hold.

extraordinary; → ray.

extrapolate
  برون‌یافتن   
borunyâftan (#)

Fr.: extrapoler   

Math.: To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values.

From → extra- + (inter)polate, → interpolate.

From borun, → extra- + yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."

extrapolation
  برون‌یابش   
borunyâbeš (#)

Fr.: extrapolation   

Predicting the value of unknown data points by projecting a function beyond the range of known data points.

Verbal noun of → extrapolate.

extrasolar
  اُسترخورشیدی   
ostarxoršidi

Fr.: extrasolaire   

Not belonging to the → solar system; outside, or originating outside, the solar system.

extra-; → solar.

extrasolar planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ اُسترخورشیدی   
sayyâre-ye ostarxoršidi

Fr.: planète extrasolaire   

A planet which belongs to a star other than → Sun, and therefore does not belong to our → solar system; same as → exoplanet.

extrasolar; → planet.

extraterrestrial
  اُسترزمینی   
ostarzamini

Fr.: extraterrestre   

1) (adj.) Of or from outside the limits of the Earth.
2) (n.) A hypothetical extraterrestrial being; → alien.

extra- + → terrestrial.

extraterrestrial life
  زیست ِ استرزمینی   
zist-e ostarzamini

Fr.: vie extraterrestre   

Life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth.

extraterrestrial; → life.

extreme
  استوم   
ostom

Fr.: extrême   

Farthest from the center or middle; outermost; exceeding the bounds of moderation. → extreme adaptive optics; → extreme HB star; → extreme horizontal branch star; → extreme infrared; → extreme mass ratio inspiral; → extreme ultraviolet; → extremely metal-poor star.

From L. extremus "outermost, utmost," superlative of exterus, "outer," comparative of ex "out of," → ex-.

Ostom "outermost, utmost" (Av. (ustəma- "outermost, highest, ultimate"), superlative of ost "out," → ex-, + -tom superlative suffix, from Mid.Pers. -tom (xwaštom "most pleasant," nevaktom "best," wattom "worst"), from O.Pers. -tama- (fratama- "first, front"); Av. -təma- (amavastəma- "strongest," hubaiδitəma- "most sweet-scented," baēšazyôtəma- "most healing," fratəma- "first, front"); cf. Skt. tama-.

extreme adaptive optics
  نوریک ِ نیاوشی ِ استوم   
nurik-e niyâveši-ye ostom

Fr.: optique adaptative extrême   

An → adaptive optics system with high-contrast imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Extreme adaptive optics systems enable the detection of faint objects (e.g., → exoplanets) close to bright sources that would otherwise overwhelm them. This is accomplished both by increasing the peak intensity of point-source images and by removing light scattered by the atmosphere and the telescope optics into the → seeing disk.

extreme; → adaptive; → optics.

extreme HB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ EHB   
setâre-ye EHB

Fr.: étoile EBH   

Same as → extreme horizontal branch star.

extreme horizontal branch star.

extreme horizontal branch star (EHB)
  ستاره‌ی ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی ِ استوم   
setâre-ye šâxe-ye ofoqi-ye ostom

Fr.: étoile de la branche horizontale extrême   

The hottest variety of stars on the → horizontal branch with temperatures ranging from 20,000 to 40,000 K. EHB stars are distinguished from normal horizontal branch stars by having extremely thin, inert hydrogen envelopes surrounding the helium-burning core. They are hot, dense stars with masses in a narrow range near 0.5 Msun. These stars have undergone such extreme mass loss during their first ascent up the giant branch that only a very thin hydrogen envelope survives. Stars identified as EHB stars are found in low metallicity globular clusters as an extension of the normal HB.

extreme; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

extreme infrared
  فروسرخ ِ استوم   
forusorx-e ostom

Fr.: infrarouge extrême   

A portion of the far infrared radiation, including wavelengths between 100 and 1,000 microns.

extreme; → infrared.

extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI)
  فروپیچه با وابر ِ استوم ِ جرم   
forupicé bâ vâbar-e ostom-e jerm

Fr.: orbite plongeante d'un trou noir binaire, au rapport de masse extrême   

A compact stellar remnant (e.g., a → white dwarf, → neutron star, or → black hole) that undergoes → inspiral into a much more massive object (→ supermassive black hole found → galactic centers). EMRIs are potential sources of low-frequency → gravitational waves. Predictions of the EMRI event rates span a wide range, from ~ 10-9 to 10-6 yr-1 per galaxy (Merritt et al. 2011, Physical Review D 84, 044024). See also → resonant relaxation.

extreme; → mass; → ratio; → inspiral.

extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
  فرابنفش ِ استوم   
farâbanafš-e ostom

Fr.: ultraviolet extrême   

A part of the ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 50 and 300 Angstöms.

extreme; → ultraviolet.

extremely metal-poor star (EMPS)
  ستاره‌ی ِ اُستومانه کم‌فلز   
stâre-ye ostomâné kamfelez

Fr.: étoile extrêmement faible en métaux   

A star with an iron abundance [Fe/H] < -3 found in a → galactic halo. These stars, whose → metallicity is typically less than one thousandth of the solar value, are believed to have formed shortly after the → Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. The number of such stars depends on the primordial → initial mass function. If the IMF were steep, there could, in principle, be a lot of EMPSs formed at high → redshifts. Thus many of them could have ended up in the halos of galaxies. See also → Population III star.

extreme; → metal; → poor; → star.

extremophile
  استومدوست   
ostomdust

Fr.: extrêmophile   

A → microorganism with the ability to thrive in extreme environmental conditions that would kill other species. These conditions include high temperatures, very low temperatures, high pressures, high levels of radiation, and high concentrations of salt in water.

extreme; → -phile.

extremum
  استومه   
ostomé

Fr.: extrémum   

A maximum or minimum value of a function in a specified interval.

From L. extremus, → extreme.

Ostomé, from ostom, → extreme + noun suffix , from Mid.Pers. -ag.

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