axtaršenâi-ye ostar-kahkašâni, ~ borun-kahkašâni
Fr.: astronomie extragalactique
The branch of astronomy that deals with objects beyond the Milky Way, especially galaxies and quasars.
extragalactic background light (EBL)
nur-e paszimine-ye ostarkahkeši
Fr.: lumière du fond extragalactique
The integrated intensity of all of the light emitted throughout the history of the Universe across the whole of the → electromagnetic spectrum, including those which are not individually detected. The EBL spectrum includes cosmological backgrounds associated with either primordial phenomena, such as the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), or photons emitted by stars, galaxies and → active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to → nucleosynthesis or other → radiative processes, including → dust scattering, → absorption and reradiation. The EBL may also contain signals that are diffuse and extended, including high-energy photons associated with dark matter particle decays or annihilation.
1) Beyond what is usual, ordinary, regular, or established.
Fr.: rayon extraordinaire
Math.: To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values.
From borun, → extra- + yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."
Predicting the value of unknown data points by projecting a function beyond the range of known data points.
Verbal noun of → extrapolate.
Not belonging to the → solar system; outside, or originating outside, the solar system.
Fr.: planète extrasolaire
1) (adj.) Of or from outside the limits of the Earth.
Fr.: vie extraterrestre
Life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth.
Farthest from the center or middle; outermost; exceeding the bounds of moderation. → extreme adaptive optics; → extreme HB star; → extreme horizontal branch star; → extreme infrared; → extreme mass ratio inspiral; → extreme ultraviolet; → extremely metal-poor star.
From L. extremus "outermost, utmost," superlative of exterus, "outer," comparative of ex "out of," → ex-.
Ostom "outermost, utmost" (Av. (ustəma- "outermost, highest, ultimate"), superlative of ost "out," → ex-, + -tom superlative suffix, from Mid.Pers. -tom (xwaštom "most pleasant," nevaktom "best," wattom "worst"), from O.Pers. -tama- (fratama- "first, front"); Av. -təma- (amavastəma- "strongest," hubaiδitəma- "most sweet-scented," baēšazyôtəma- "most healing," fratəma- "first, front"); cf. Skt. tama-.
extreme adaptive optics
nurik-e niyâveši-ye ostom
Fr.: optique adaptative extrême
An → adaptive optics system with high-contrast imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Extreme adaptive optics systems enable the detection of faint objects (e.g., → exoplanets) close to bright sources that would otherwise overwhelm them. This is accomplished both by increasing the peak intensity of point-source images and by removing light scattered by the atmosphere and the telescope optics into the → seeing disk.
extreme HB star
Fr.: étoile EBH
Same as → extreme horizontal branch star.
extreme horizontal branch star (EHB)
setâre-ye šâxe-ye ofoqi-ye ostom
Fr.: étoile de la branche horizontale extrême
The hottest variety of stars on the → horizontal branch with temperatures ranging from 20,000 to 40,000 K. EHB stars are distinguished from normal horizontal branch stars by having extremely thin, inert hydrogen envelopes surrounding the helium-burning core. They are hot, dense stars with masses in a narrow range near 0.5 Msun. These stars have undergone such extreme mass loss during their first ascent up the giant branch that only a very thin hydrogen envelope survives. Stars identified as EHB stars are found in low metallicity globular clusters as an extension of the normal HB.
Fr.: infrarouge extrême
A portion of the far infrared radiation, including wavelengths between 100 and 1,000 microns.
extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI)
forupicé bâ vâbar-e ostom-e jerm
Fr.: orbite plongeante d'un trou noir binaire, au rapport de masse extrême
A compact stellar remnant (e.g., a → white dwarf, → neutron star, or → black hole) that undergoes → inspiral into a much more massive object (→ supermassive black hole found → galactic centers). EMRIs are potential sources of low-frequency → gravitational waves. Predictions of the EMRI event rates span a wide range, from ~ 10-9 to 10-6 yr-1 per galaxy (Merritt et al. 2011, Physical Review D 84, 044024). See also → resonant relaxation.
extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
Fr.: ultraviolet extrême
A part of the ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 50 and 300 Angstöms.
extremely metal-poor star (EMPS)
stâre-ye ostomâné kamfelez
Fr.: étoile extrêmement faible en métaux
A star with an iron abundance [Fe/H] < -3 found in a → galactic halo. These stars, whose → metallicity is typically less than one thousandth of the solar value, are believed to have formed shortly after the → Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. The number of such stars depends on the primordial → initial mass function. If the IMF were steep, there could, in principle, be a lot of EMPSs formed at high → redshifts. Thus many of them could have ended up in the halos of galaxies. See also → Population III star.
A → microorganism with the ability to thrive in extreme environmental conditions that would kill other species. These conditions include high temperatures, very low temperatures, high pressures, high levels of radiation, and high concentrations of salt in water.
A maximum or minimum value of a function in a specified interval.
From L. extremus, → extreme.
Ostomé, from ostom, → extreme + noun suffix -é, from Mid.Pers. -ag.