An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 634
existentialism
  هستیال‌باوری، هستیال‌گرایی   
hastiyâl-bâvari, hastiyâl-gerâyi

Fr.: existentialisme   

A philosophical attitude associated especially with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and  Sartre, and opposed to → rationalism and  → empiricism, that stresses the individual's  unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or  her choices (Dictionary.com).

existential; → -ism.

existentialist
  هستیال‌باور، هستیال‌گرا   
hastiyâl-bâvar, hastiyâl-gerâ

Fr.: existentialiste   

An advocate of → existentialism.

existential; → -ist.

exit
  اسرفت   
osraft

Fr.: sortie   

A way or passage out.

From L. exit "he or she goes out," from exire "to go out," from → ex- "out" + ire "to go;" cf. Gk ion " going," neut. pr.p. of ienai "to go;" Pers. ây-, â- present stem of âmadan "to come;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Russ. idti "to go."

Osraft, from os-, → ex- "out," + raft, raftan "to go, walk," → entrance.

exit pupil
  مردمک ِ اسرفت   
mardomak-e osraft

Fr.: pupille de sortie   

In an → optical system, the → image of the → aperture stop formed by the elements following it. See also → entrance pupil.

exit; → pupil.

exo-
  برون-   
borun- (#)

Fr.: exo-   

Prefix meaning "outside; outer; external" used in the formation of compound words: exoplanet, exosphere, exocentric.

From Gk. exo "outside," used in forming scientific terms, → ex-.

Borun-, from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river").

exobiology
  برون‌زیست‌شناسی   
borun zistšenâsi

Fr.: exobiologie   

The study of life beyond the Earth's atmosphere, as on other planets; also → astrobiology.

exo-; → biology.

exoEarth
  برون زمین   
borun-zamin

Fr.: exoterre   

An exoplanet similar to Earth.

exo- + → earth.

ExoMars
  اگزو-مارس   
ExoMars

Fr.: ExoMars   

A → European Space Agency (ESA) program to investigate the Martian environment and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future Mars sample return mission in the 2020's. Two missions are foreseen: one consisting of an Orbiter plus an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), launched in 2016, and the other, featuring a rover, with a launch date of 2018. Both missions will be carried out in cooperation with Russia's Roscosmos space agency. The ExoMars program will demonstrate a number of essential flight and in-situ enabling technologies that are necessary for future exploration missions, such as an international Mars Sample Return mission. At the same time, a number of important scientific investigations will be carried out. The 2016 mission included a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDM. The Orbiter will carry scientific instruments to detect and study atmospheric trace gases, such as methane. The EDM will contain sensors to evaluate the lander's performance as it descends, and additional sensors to study the environment at the landing site. The 2018 mission includes a rover that will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research.

ExoMars, short for "→ exobiology on → Mars."

exomoon
  برونماه   
borunmâh

Fr.: exolune   

A natural → satellite orbiting an → extrasolar planet.

exo-; → moon.

exoplanet
  برون‌سیاره   
borun-sayyâreh

Fr.: exoplanète   

Same as → extrasolar planet.

exo- + → planet.

exosphere
  برون‌سپهر   
borun-sepehr

Fr.: exosphère   

1) The outermost portion of the Earth's → atmosphere. Extremely tenuous, it lies above the → ionosphere from a height of about 500 km, to the edge of → interplanetary space.
2) An extremely tenuous kind of atmosphere surrounding a → solar system body. Since the → mean free path is much greater than the atmospheric scale height. The → atoms or → molecules never collide with each other. → lunar exosphere.

exo- + → sphere.

exothermic
  گرمازا   
garmâzâ (#)

Fr.: exothermique   

Relating to or describing any process in which a system releases heat to its surrounding environment.

From → exo- + -therm, from Gk. therme "heat," from PIE *ghwerm-/*ghworm- "warm;" cf. Pers. garm "warm;" L. fornax "an oven;" O.E. wearm "warm" + → -ic.

From garmâ "heat, warmth" (Mid.Pers. garm; O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" Gk. thermos "warm;" L. formus "warm;" P.Gmc. *warmaz; O.E. wearm; O.H.G., Ger. warm; PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm-, as above) + verbal adj. and agent noun of zâdan "to bring foth, give birth," (Mid.Pers. zâtan; Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

exotic
  اسگانیک   
osgânik

Fr.: exotique   

1) Of foreign origin or character; not native; introduced from abroad, but not fully naturalized or acclimatized.
2) Strikingly unusual or strange in effect or appearance.
3) Of a uniquely new or experimental nature (Dictionary.com).
See: → exotic star.

M.E., from M.Fr. exotique and directly from L. exoticus, from Gk. exotikos "foreign," literally "from the outside," from → exo- "outside."

Osgânik, from os-, → ex-, + gân relation suffix, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, + -ik, → -ic.

exotic star
  ستاره‌ی ِ اسگانیک   
setâre-ye osgânik

Fr.: étoile exotique   

A hypothetical → compact object composed of particles other than electrons, protons, and neutrons balanced against → gravitational collapse by → degeneracy pressure of corresponding quantum properties.

exotic; → star.

expand
  گستردن   
gostardan (#)

Fr.: se dilater; développer; s'étendre; élargir   

1) To increase in extent, size, volume, scope, etc.
2) To spread or stretch out; unfold.
3) To express in fuller form or greater detail.

From M.E. expanden, from L. expandere "to spread out," from → ex- "out" + pandere "to spread."

Gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse," from Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads" (cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA)
     
EVLA

Fr.: EVLA   

A → radio interferometer array consisting of 27 25-meter diameter antennas located on the Plains of San Agustin in West-Central New Mexico. EVLA will operate at any frequency between 1.0 and 50 GHz and will have a continuum sensitivity improvement over the → VLA by factors of 5 to 20.The EVLA project is expected to be completed in 2012. See also the EVLA homepage.

expand; → very; → large; → array.

expanding Universe
  گیتی ِ گسترا   
giti-ye gostarâ

Fr.: Univers en expansion   

The deduction based on the observational fact that the greater the → distance to a → galaxy, the greater the → redshift in its → spectral lines (→ Doppler effect). The observations strongly indicate that galaxies appear to be moving away from us with speeds proportional to their distance. This is in agreement with the overall → expansion of the → Universe.

expand; → -ing; → Universe.

expansion
  گسترش   
gostareš (#)

Fr.: expansion   

1) General: The act or process of expanding; the state or quality of being expanded.
2) Math.: The process of expressing a quantity, or a quantity expressed, as a sum of a series of terms. For example the expression (2x - 1)(x + 3) can be expanded to: 2x2 + 5x - 3. See also → binomial expansion.

Noun from → expand.

expansion of the Universe
  گسترش ِ گیتی   
gostarš-e giti (#)

Fr.: expansion de l'Univers   

The receding of galaxies from one another at a speed proportional to their separation, as inferred by Edwin Hubble from the observed Doppler shift of distant galaxies. → Hubble constant describes the local rate of the expansion.

expansion; → universe.

expansion parameter
  پارامون ِ گسترش   
pârâmun-e gostareš

Fr.: paramètre d'expansion   

A → scale factor that relates the size of the Universe R = R(t) at time t to the size of the Universe R0 = R(t0) at time t0 by R = aR0. The expansion parameter represents the history of expansion of the Universe.

expansion; → parameter.

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