electrostatic unit (esu)
yekâ-ye barqistâ-ye bâr
Fr.: unité électrostatique de charge
The unit of electric charge in the → cgs system of units. Also called the → statcoulomb. The esu is defined such that if two objects, each carrying a charge of +1 esu, are 1 cm aparat, then they repel each other with a force of 1 → dyne. 1 esu = 3.3356 × 10-10 → coulombs.
Fr.: onde électrostatique
In a → plasma, a disturbance that is devoid of magnetic field, and hence can be expressed by an electrostatic potential. The electric field is always parallel to the propagation vector, so that the electrostatic wave is → longitudinal.
The branch of → electricity dealing with the phenomena and properties of stationary → electric charges, as opposed to → electrodynamics. It involves the build-up of charge on the → surface of → objects due to → contact with other surfaces.
Fr.: époque électrofaible
A period in the early history of the Universe lasting from 10-36 to 10-12 seconds after the → Big Bang. The electroweak epoch begins at the same time as cosmic → inflation is triggered. This is also the time when the → strong force breaks from the → grand unified force and ends with another → phase transition will occur in which the → weak interaction breaks from the → electroweak force.
niru-ye barqânezâr, ~ barqâkamzur
Fr.: force électrofaible
The force that takes part in an → electroweak interaction.
Fr.: interaction électrofaible
The unified description of two of the four fundamental interactions of nature, → electromagnetism and the → weak interaction which would merge into a single force under conditions of extreme temperature (above 1016 degrees, 102 GeV) prevalent in the early history of the → Universe.
Fr.: étoile électrofaible
A postulated type of star that could form toward the end of a → massive star's life, after → nuclear fusion has stopped in its → core, and before the star → collapses into a → black hole. In those → extreme conditions, when → temperature and → density inside the star are very high, → quarks could convert into → leptons. Hence huge amounts of energy can be released, much of which would be in the form of → neutrinos.
Elegance quality; something elegant.
Noun from → elegant.
Gracefully refined and dignified, as in tastes, habits, or literary style; graceful in form or movement; excellent; fine; superior (Dictionary.com).
M.E., from M.Fr., from L. elegantem (nominative elegans) "choice, fine, tasteful," from eligere "to select, choose."
Qašang "elegant, nicely fitted up" (Steingass), variant šang; cf. Sogd. xšang "beautiful, magnificient, excellent," maybe related to Av. xšnu- "to entertain, welcome, take care of (a guest)," O.Pers. xšnu- "to be satisfied, glad," Pers. xošnud "satisfied, content."
Fr.: équation élégante
An equation with surprising simplicity that expresses a fundamental result relating several apparently unassociable elements. For example, → Euler's formula for the particular case of θ = π, and the → mass-energy relation.
bonpâr (#), onsor (#)
1) General: A component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a
whole may be resolved by analysis.
From O.Fr. élément, from L. elementum "rudiment, one of the four elements, first principle," origin unknown.
Bonpâr, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning," Av. būna- "base, depth," cf. Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree" + pâr contraction of pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble." Onsor from Ar.
farâvâni-ye bonpâr, ~ onsor
Fr.: abondance élémentaire, ~ d'un élément
Emission nebulae: The relative amount of a given → chemical element in an ionized nebula with respect to another element, usually → hydrogen. Elemental abundance ratios of → emission nebulae are obtained either by adding the observed → ionic abundances of the element or by using → ionization correction factors. Same as → total abundance.
Elemental, from M.L. elementalis, → element + -al; abundance, from O.Fr. abundance, from L. abundantia "fullness," from abundare "to overflow," from L. ab- "away" + undare "to surge," from unda "water, wave;" → abundance.
zarre-ye bonyâdin (#)
Fr.: particule élémentaire
A particle which cannot be divided into other constituents. More specifically, a particle whose field appears in the fundamental field equations of the unified field theory of elementary particles, in particular in the Lagrangian. For example, the → electron, the → photon, and the → quark are elementary particles, whereas the proton and neutron are not. The elementary nature of a particle can be revised depending on new observations or theories. Also called → fundamental particle.
Bonyâdin, from bonyâd "basis, foundation," variant of bonlâd, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom" → element + lâd "root; foundation; reason, cause; wall" + adj. suffix -in.
Fr.: temps élémentaire
elements of the orbit
bonpârhâ-ye madâr, onsorhâ-ye ~ (#)
Fr.: éléments orbitaux
Fr.: trompe d'éléphant
An elongated structure of → interstellar dust and gas which absorbs the radiation from background stars in an → H II region. These structures are the denser remnants of → molecular clouds from which → massive stars are formed. Elephant trunks are eventually dissipated by the action of the → ionizing radiation and → stellar wind of the associated massive stars. A remarkable example of these structures is displayed by the → HST image of the → Eagle Nebula as → pillars of obscuring matter protruding from the interior wall of a dark molecular cloud. Some → Bok globules may represent the remaining densest fragments of elephant trunks.
M.E. elephant, from O.Fr. olifant, from L. elephantus, from Gk. elephas "elephant, ivory," probably from a non-I.E. language, likely via Phoenician; trunk, from M.E. trunke, O.Fr. tronc, from L. truncus "stem, trunk, stump."
Xortum "the proboscis of an elephant," loanword from Ar. xartum; fil, pil "elephant," from Mid.Pers. pil "elephant;" O.Pers. piru- "ivory."
Elephant's Trunk Nebula
miq-e xortum-e fil
Fr.: Nébuleuse de la trompe d'éléphant
An elongated dark structure of gas and dust in the → H II region IC 1396. It spans about 5 degrees on the sky in the constellation → Cepheus, about 2400 → light-years from the Earth. The Elephant Trunk Nebula is believed to be site of star formation, containing several very young stars. It is an example of → elephant trunks associated with star forming regions.
1) To move or raise to a higher place or position; lift up.
Bâlâyidan, from bâla "up, above, high, elevated, height," related to boland "high," borz, "height, → magnitude."
kaf-e bâlârow (#)
Fr.: plancher mobile
The floor below a telescope used to lift observers to the level of the telescope's eyepiece, since the telescope is tilted at varying angles when it is in use.