An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 655
  ایوار، شامگاه   
ivâr (#), šâmgâh (#)

Fr.: soir, soirée   

The latter part of the → day and early part of the → night. Not an astronomical term proper. → evening star.

From O.E. verb æfnung "to grow toward evening," from æfnian "to become evening," from æfen "evening," from P.Gmc. *æbando- (cf. O.H.G. aband, Ger. abend).

Ivâr "evening" (Lori, Laki êvâra; Borujerdi ivâra; Kurd. ewâra); Mid.Pers. êvârak "evening;" šâmgâh, from šâm "evening, evening meal" + gâh "time." The first component, šâm, from Mid.Pers. šâm "evening meal, supper," from Av. xšāfnya- "evening meal," from Av. xšap-, xšapā-, xšapan-, xšafn- "night" (O.Pers. xšap- "night;" Mid.Pers. šap; Mod.Pers. šab "night"); cf. Skt. ksap- "nigh, darkness;" Hitt. ispant- "night." The second component gâh "time;" Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come."

evening star
  ستاره‌ی ِ شامگاه   
setâre-ye šâmgâh (#)

Fr.: étoile du soir   

Any bright → planet, often → Venus, seen low in the western sky after → sunset. → Hesperus.

evening; → star.

ruydâd (#)

Fr.: événement   

1) General: Something that happens or is regarded as happening; an occurrence, especially one of some importance.
2) Einstein's relativity: An occurrence in the → space-time continuum referenced by three spatial coordinates and a complementary temporal ordinate. → world line; → space-time diagram.
3) Statistics: A subset of the → sample space.

From M.Fr. event, from L. eventus "occurrence, issue," from evenire "to come out, happen, result," from → ex- "out" + venire "to come," from PIE base *gwem- "to go, come;" cf. Mod/Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come;" Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come.

Ruydâd, noun from ruy dâdan "to occur, happen," originally "to appear," from ruy "face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + dâdan "to give; to command" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere to make;" PIE base *do- to give").

event horizon
  افق ِ رویداد   
ofoq-e ruydâd (#)

Fr.: horizon d'événement   

1) The surface surrounding a → black hole with the property that any light ray emitted inside it cannot escape to the outer space because of the strength of the → gravitational field. The radius of the event horizon is called the → Schwarzschild radius. See also → photon sphere.
2) For an observer A at the instant t0, the surface in the → space-time that divides the collection of all events into two non-empty classes: those events that have been, are being, or will be observed by A, and those that A has never observed and will never be able to observe (J. Plebanski, A. Krasinski, 2006, An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology, Cambridge Univ. Press).

event; → horizon.

ever-expanding Universe
  گیتی ِ هماره‌گسترا   
giti-ye hamâré gostarâ

Fr.: Univers en expansion continue   

Same as → accelerating Universe.

expand; → Universe.


Fr.: évidence, preuve   

That which tends to prove or disprove something; something that makes plain or clear.

Noun form of → evident.

Âvišé, from âviš, → evident + noun suffix , Mid.Pers. -ak/-ag.


Fr.: évident   

Plain or clear to the sight or understanding.

From L. evidentem (nom. evidens) "perceptible, obvious," from → ex- "fully, out of" + videntem (nom. videns), pr.p. of videre "to see," from PIE base *weid- "to know, to see;" cf. Mod.Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" O.E. witan "to know;" Goth. weitan "to see;" E. wise; Ger. wissen "to know;" Lith. vysti "to see;" Rus. videt' "to see," vest' "news."

Âviš, from Av. āviš, āuuiš "evidently, before the eyes," āuuišiia- "manifest;" Mid.Pers. âškârâg "manifest;" Mod.Pers. âškâr (Proto-Iranian *āuiš-kâr); Arm. loanword from Iranian aškaray "open, not hidden;" cf. Skt. āvis "evidently, before the eyes;" O.C.S. (j)avé "manifest, known" (loanword from Iranian); L. audire "to hear;" Gk. aisthanesthai "to feel."


Fr.: évocation   

The act or fact of evoking.

Verbal noun of → evoke.


Fr.: évoquer   

1) To call up or produce (memories, feelings, etc.).
2) To elicit or draw forth (

From Fr. évoquer or directly from L. evocare "call out, rouse, summon," from → ex- "out" + vocare "to call," → voice .

Zâvacidan, from zâ-, → ex-, + vacidan "to call," → convoke.

fargašt (#)

Fr.: évolution   

Any process of formation or growth; development; a process of gradual, progressive change; a product of such development; something evolved.
Astro.: A continuous and progressive change according to certain laws and by means of acting physical forces.
Biology: A process of development in which a living organism, through major environmental changes, becomes more and more complex by the differentiation of its parts.

Verbal noun of → evolve.

fargašti (#)

Fr.: évolutif   

Of, pertaining to, or in accordance with a theory of evolution.

Adjective of → evolution.

evolutionary mass
  جرم ِ فرگشتی   
jerm-e fargašti (#)

Fr.: masse évolutive   

The stellar mass based on → effective temperature and → luminosity, as derived from → evolutionary tracks.

evolutionary; → mass.

evolutionary model
  مدل ِ فرگشت   
model-e fargašt (#)

Fr.: modèle d'évolution   

A model, based on theoretical calculations, which predicts the behavior of an astronomical entity (stars, galaxies, Universe) over time.

evolutionary; → model.

evolutionary stage
  گامه‌ی ِ فرگشت   
gâmeye fargašt

Fr.: étape d'évolution   

A particular step or phase in the evolution of an astronomical object.

evolutionary; → stage.

evolutionary time scale
  زمان-مرپل ِ فرگشت   
zamân-marpel-e fargašt

Fr.: échelle de temps d'évolution   

The characteristic time it takes an evolving astronomical object to pass from a step to another.

evolutionary; → time scale.

evolutionary track
  تر ِ فرگشت   
tor-e fargašt

Fr.: trajet évolutif   

In a theoretical → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the path taken by an evolving star.

evolutionary; → track.

  فرگشتن، فرگشت کردن   
fargaštan (#), fargašt kardan (#)

Fr.: évoluer   

To come forth gradually into being; undergo evolution.
Astro.: To change with time by the action of varying physical conditions.
Biology: To develop by a process of evolution to a different adaptive state or condition.

L. evolvere "to unroll, open, unfold," from → ex- "out" + volvere "to roll, turn, twist;" PIE base *wel- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. valate "turns round;" Gk. eilein "to turn, squeeze," helix "spiral object;" O.H.G. walzan "to roll, waltz;" Lith. valtis "twine, net," apvalus "round;" O.E. wealwian "to roll (in mud);" Welsh olwyn "wheel."

Fargaštan, fargašt kardan, from fargašt, from far- "forward" (Mid.Pers. fra- "forward, before; much; around;" O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; excessive;" cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron;" Gk. pro "before, in front of;" L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" PIE *pro-) + gašt, present stem of gaštan, gardidan "to change; to turn" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vartati; L. vertere; O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE *werto, *wer-).

evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)

Fr.: eLISA   

A space project, initially → LISA, consisting of a configuration of three satellites, aimed to detect low frequency → gravitational waves that cannot be measured by ground-based detectors. The detection range will be from about 0.1 milliHz to 1 Hz. One "mother" and two "daughter" spacecrafts will be brought into an orbit around the Sun, which is similar to the Earth's orbit. The satellites will fly in a near-equilateral triangle formation, with a constant distance of one million km between, following the Earth along its orbit at a distance of around 50 million km. The mother spacecrafts carries two and each of the daughter spacecraft carry one free-flying → test masses that will be kept as far as possible free of external disturbances. The mutual distances of the test masses from satellite to satellite will be measured by means of high-precision, → Michelson-like laser → interferometry. In this way, the extremely small distance variations between the test masses of two satellites can be detected which are caused by the passages of a gravitational waves. The required measurement accuracy of the distances amounts to typically 1/100 of the diameter of a hydrogen atom (10-12 m) at a distance of two million km.

evolve; → laser; → interferometer; → space; → antenna.

evolved star
  ستاره‌ی ِ فرگشته   
setâreye fargašté

Fr.: étoile évoluée   

A star that has left the → main sequence.

evolve; → star.

miš (#)

Fr.: brebis   

A female sheep, especially when fully mature.

M.E.; O.E. eowu, ewe "female sheep;" cognate with O.H.G. ou, ouwi, Du. ooi, L. ovis, Gk. ois, ois, Skt. avi; PIE *owi- "sheep."

Miš, from Mid.Pers. mêš "sheep, ewe;" Av. maeša- "sheep, ewe;" cf. Skt. mesa-, mesi "sheep, ewe."

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