An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 639
evolutionary mass
  جرم ِ فرگشتی   
jerm-e fargašti (#)

Fr.: masse évolutive   

The stellar mass based on → effective temperature and → luminosity, as derived from → evolutionary tracks.

evolutionary; → mass.

evolutionary model
  مدل ِ فرگشت   
model-e fargašt (#)

Fr.: modèle d'évolution   

A model, based on theoretical calculations, which predicts the behavior of an astronomical entity (stars, galaxies, Universe) over time.

evolutionary; → model.

evolutionary stage
  گامه‌ی ِ فرگشت   
gâmeye fargašt

Fr.: étape d'évolution   

A particular step or phase in the evolution of an astronomical object.

evolutionary; → stage.

evolutionary time scale
  زمان-مرپل ِ فرگشت   
zamân-marpel-e fargašt

Fr.: échelle de temps d'évolution   

The characteristic time it takes an evolving astronomical object to pass from a step to another.

evolutionary; → time scale.

evolutionary track
  تر ِ فرگشت   
tor-e fargašt

Fr.: trajet évolutif   

In a theoretical → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the path taken by an evolving star.

evolutionary; → track.

evolve
  فرگشتن، فرگشت کردن   
fargaštan (#), fargašt kardan (#)

Fr.: évoluer   

To come forth gradually into being; undergo evolution.
Astro.: To change with time by the action of varying physical conditions.
Biology: To develop by a process of evolution to a different adaptive state or condition.

L. evolvere "to unroll, open, unfold," from → ex- "out" + volvere "to roll, turn, twist;" PIE base *wel- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. valate "turns round;" Gk. eilein "to turn, squeeze," helix "spiral object;" O.H.G. walzan "to roll, waltz;" Lith. valtis "twine, net," apvalus "round;" O.E. wealwian "to roll (in mud);" Welsh olwyn "wheel."

Fargaštan, fargašt kardan, from fargašt, from far- "forward" (Mid.Pers. fra- "forward, before; much; around;" O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; excessive;" cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron;" Gk. pro "before, in front of;" L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" PIE *pro-) + gašt, present stem of gaštan, gardidan "to change; to turn" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vartati; L. vertere; O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE *werto, *wer-).

evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)
  الیزا   
eLISA

Fr.: eLISA   

A space project, initially → LISA, consisting of a configuration of three satellites, aimed to detect low frequency → gravitational waves that cannot be measured by ground-based detectors. The detection range will be from about 0.1 milliHz to 1 Hz. One "mother" and two "daughter" spacecrafts will be brought into an orbit around the Sun, which is similar to the Earth's orbit. The satellites will fly in a near-equilateral triangle formation, with a constant distance of one million km between, following the Earth along its orbit at a distance of around 50 million km. The mother spacecrafts carries two and each of the daughter spacecraft carry one free-flying → test masses that will be kept as far as possible free of external disturbances. The mutual distances of the test masses from satellite to satellite will be measured by means of high-precision, → Michelson-like laser → interferometry. In this way, the extremely small distance variations between the test masses of two satellites can be detected which are caused by the passages of a gravitational waves. The required measurement accuracy of the distances amounts to typically 1/100 of the diameter of a hydrogen atom (10-12 m) at a distance of two million km.

evolve; → laser; → interferometer; → space; → antenna.

evolved star
  ستاره‌ی ِ فرگشته   
setâreye fargašté

Fr.: étoile évoluée   

A star that has left the → main sequence.

evolve; → star.

EX Lupi
   EX گرگ   
EX Gorg

Fr.: EX Lupi   

A classical → T Tauri star, and the EXor prototype, subject to sporadic outbursts. It remains at about V = 13.2 mag for extended periods to brighten to as much as V = 8.4 mag (1955-1956). When EX Lupi is at minimum, it resembles a classical T Tauri star of type M0. At outburst this spectrum is veiled by a hot continuum, the equivalent widths of the optical-region emission lines decrease, and reverse P Cygni absorption components appear at the higher Balmer lines. The outbursts are believed to be due to episodic infall onto the M0 star. → FU Orionis objects.

E and X, letters of alphabet; Lupi, genitive of → Lupus.

ex-
  اس-، زُ-، سُ-، برون-   
os-, zo-, so-, borun- (#)

Fr.: ex-   

Prefix meaning "out of, outside; from," but also "upwards, completely, deprive of, without."

From M.E., from O.Fr., from L. ex- "out of, from," akin to Gk. ex, ek "out of;" Av. uz-, us-, see below; from PIE base *eghs "out" (cf. Gaul. ex-; O.Ir. ess-; O.C.S. izu; Rus. iz).

Pers. os- (variants zo-, so-), from Mid.Pers. us-, uz-; Av. uz-, us- "out of, outside, from;" O.Pers. ud- (ud-apatatā "to rise up, rebel"), also Pers. preposition az "from; of; out of," suffixes zo- (in zodudan "to polish, clean;" Mid.Pers. uzdâtan; Av. uzdā-, from uz- + dā- "to make, create"), âz- (âzmâyeš, → experiment), haz- (haziné "cost, expenditure;" Mid.Pers. uzên, uzênak, from *uz-ayana- "going out;" Av. us- + ay- "to go" (→ assembly); PIE *ud- "up, out," cf. Skt. úd "up, away, out;" O.E. ūt "out;" E. out; O.H.G. ūz "out;" Ger. aus; Russ. vy- "out."
Borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river").

exa-
  اکسا-   
eksâ-

Fr.: exa-   

A prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1018.

Adopted in 1991, from Gk. ex "six," because it is equal to (1000)6.

exact
  رزین   
razin

Fr.: exact   

1) Strictly accurate or correct; precise, as opposed to approximate.
2) The complete solution of an equation. For example, in the equation x2 = 7, the positive solution 2.646 is correct to three decimal places. The exact answer is x = 71/2.
See also:
exact differential, → exact differential equation, → exact science, → accurate, → precise, → rigorous.

From L. exactus, p.p. of exigere, literally "to drive out, thrust out," also "demand, finish, measure," from → ex- "out" + agere "drive, lead, act," → act.

Razin "firm, solid, strong" [Dehxodâ, Steingass], Mid.Pers. razên "firm, strong, secure, solid."

exact differential
  دگرسانه‌ی ِ رزین   
degarsâne-ye razin

Fr.: différentielle exacte   

If N(x,y) is a → function of two → independent variables, then dN = (∂N/∂x)dx + (∂N/∂y)dy is the exact differential.

exact; → differential.

exact differential equation
  هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ رزین   
hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye razin

Fr.: équation différentielle exacte   

A → differential equation composed of → continuous  → differentiable functions for which certain conditions are fulfilled. The equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0 is called exact if M(x,y) and N(x,y) are continuous differentiable functions for which the following relationship is fulfilled: ∂M/∂y = ∂N/∂x, and ∂M/∂y and ∂N/∂x are continuous in some region.

exact; → differential; → equation.

exact number
  عدد ِ رزین   
adad-e razin

Fr.: nombre exact   

A value that is known with complete certainty. Examples of exact numbers are defined numbers, results of counts, certain unit conversions. Some examples: there are exactly 100 centimeters in 1 meter, a full circle is exactly 360°, and the number of students in a class can exactly be 25.

exact; → number.

exact science
  دانش ِ رزین   
dâneš-e razin

Fr.: science exacte   

A field of study that admits especially precise predictions and rigorous methods of testing hypotheses, especially reproducible experiments involving quantifiable predictions and measurements.

exact; → science.

examination
  بررسی   
barrasi (#)

Fr.: examen   

1) The act of examining; inspection; inquiry; investigation.
2) The state of being examined.
3) The act or process of testing pupils, candidates, etc., as by questions (Dictionary.com).

Noun from → examine.

examine
  بررسیدن   
barrasidan (#)

Fr.: examiner   

1) To inspect or scrutinize carefully.
2) To inquire into or investigate.
3) To test the knowledge, reactions, or qualifications of (a pupil, candidate, etc.), as by questions or assigning tasks (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. examiner "interrogate, question," from L. examinare "to test or try; consider," literally "to weigh," from examen "a means of weighing or testing," probably ultimately from exigere "weigh accurately," → exact.

Barrasidan, from bar- "up; upon; on; in; into; at; forth; with; near; before; according to," → on-, + rasidan "to attain; to arrive," → access.

example
  نمونه   
nemuné (#)

Fr.: exemple   

One of a number of things, or a part of something, taken to show the character of the whole.

From O.Fr. essample, from L. exemplum "a sample," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "to take out, remove," from → ex- + emere "to obtain, buy," originally "to take," from PIE base *em- "to take" (cf. Av. yam-, yās- "to hold, take hold of," apayeiti (with apa) "taking away a thing from;" O.Pers. āyasa- "to take as one's own;" Skt. yam- "to hold, sustain," yamati "holds, subdues;" O.C.S. imo "to take;" Lith. imti, ima, émé "to take").

Nemuné, from nemun "index; guide," from nemudan "to show, display," from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mun, Av. māy- "to measure," → display.

excellent
  پهرم   
pahrom (#)

Fr.: excellent   

Possessing outstanding quality or superior merit; remarkably good (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. excellent "outstanding," from L. excellentem (nominative excellens) "towering, prominent, superior," pr.p. of excellere "to surpass, be superior,"from → ex- "out from" + cellere "to rise high, tower," related to celsus "high, great," from PIE root *kel- "to be elevated; hill;" from which are derived L. collis "hill," columna "projecting object," culmen "top, summit," cellere "raise;" Gk. kolonos "hill," kolophon "summit;" Lithuanian kalnas "mountain," kalnelis "hill;" E. hill; Pers. dialects (Gilân) kol, kulâ "hill," (Dâmqân) kalut, kolut "successive soil hills, hill," (Tabari) keti "hill," (Jâsk) kit "hill."

Mid.Pers. pahrom "excellent," variant pahlom, ultimately from *parθama- "the highest, the most elevated," literally "Parthian," adj. from Parθa(va)-; cf. pahlavân "hero," another similar respect word related to Parthia (Nyberg 1974).

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