1) To inspect or scrutinize carefully.
M.E., from M.Fr. examiner "interrogate, question," from L. examinare "to test or try; consider," literally "to weigh," from examen "a means of weighing or testing," probably ultimately from exigere "weigh accurately," → exact.
One of a number of things, or a part of something, taken to show the character of the whole.
From O.Fr. essample, from L. exemplum "a sample," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "to take out, remove," from → ex- + emere "to obtain, buy," originally "to take," from PIE base *em- "to take" (cf. Av. yam-, yās- "to hold, take hold of," apayeiti (with apa) "taking away a thing from;" O.Pers. āyasa- "to take as one's own;" Skt. yam- "to hold, sustain," yamati "holds, subdues;" O.C.S. imo "to take;" Lith. imti, ima, émé "to take").
Possessing outstanding quality or superior merit; remarkably good (Dictionary.com).
M.E., from O.Fr. excellent "outstanding," from L. excellentem (nominative excellens) "towering, prominent, superior," pr.p. of excellere "to surpass, be superior,"from → ex- "out from" + cellere "to rise high, tower," related to celsus "high, great," from PIE root *kel- "to be elevated; hill;" from which are derived L. collis "hill," columna "projecting object," culmen "top, summit," cellere "raise;" Gk. kolonos "hill," kolophon "summit;" Lithuanian kalnas "mountain," kalnelis "hill;" E. hill; Pers. dialects (Gilân) kol, kulâ "hill," (Dâmqân) kalut, kolut "successive soil hills, hill," (Tabari) keti "hill," (Jâsk) kit "hill."
Mid.Pers. pahrom "excellent," variant pahlom, ultimately from *parθama- "the highest, the most elevated," literally "Parthian," adj. from Parθa(va)-; cf. pahlavân "hero," another similar respect word related to Parthia (Nyberg 1974).
The center of an → excircle.
1) sogert, bé sogert-e; 2) sogertidan
Fr.: excepté, à l'exception de, sauf, hormis
1) With the exclusion of; excluding.
1) The act of excepting or the fact of being excepted.
Verbal noun of → except.
Forming an exception; not ordinary.
fozuni (#), ferehbud
From L. excessus "going beyond bounds," from stem of excedere "to go beyond," from → ex- "out" + cedere "to go, yield;" cf. Gk. hodos "way;" PIE base *ked- "to go, yield."
Fozuni, from afzuni "excess," afzuni kardan "to exceed bounds,"
from afzudan "to add, increase," from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;"
O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from
abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav-
"press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward,
impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."
1) gahulidan (#); 2) gahul, gahuleš
Fr.: 1) échanger; 2) échange
O.Fr. eschangier, from V.L. *excambiare, from L. → ex- "out" + cambire "barter."
Mod.Pers. gahulidan "to exchange," Kurd. guhartin/guhêr- "to exchange," Mid.Pers. wihir "to change," wihirišn "change," Manichean Mid.Pers. hr'g; Buddhist Mid.Pers. hlg "duty, tribute; work, effort;" Arm. loanword hark "duty, tribute;" Ar. loanword xarj "expense," xarâj "land, property tax;" Proto-Iranian *har- "to barter, trade; to pay tribute;" IE cognates: Gk. elein "to take (by force)," elor "loot, booty, catch;" Goth. saljan "to bring, to sacrifice;" O.E. sellan "to hand over, sell;" O.H.G. sala "delivery of goods."
Fr.: force d'échange
The force that governs the exchange of particles in the interaction between bodies. → exchange particle.
Fr.: particule d'échange
In quantum field theory, a particle that transfers momentum and energy between interacting objects, and is said to mediate the interaction. All four of the fundamental forces involve the exchange of one or more particles. For example, photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force.
Chemistry: A complex formed from combination of a molecule with another molecule of the same type but in an → excited state. In other words, a → dimer in an electronically excited state. See also → exciplex.
For a → triangle with two sides extended in the direction opposite their common → vertex, a circle that lies outside the triangle and is tangent to the three sides (two of them extended). The center of the excircle, called the → excenter, is the point of intersection of the bisector of the interior angle and the bisector of the exterior angles at the other two vertices.
To cut out or off; to remove
The act of removal; an excising. The surgical removal of a foreign body or of tissue.
Verbal noun of → excise.
1) The addition of → energy to an → atomic
or → molecular system, → transferring it
from its → ground state to an
→ excited state.
Fr.: énergie d'excitation
Fr.: potentiel d'excitation
Fr.: température d'excitation
Of a gas or plasma, the temperature deduced from the → populations of atomic → excited states, as expressed by the Boltzmann formula: Nu/Nl = (gu/gl) exp (-ΔE/kTex), where Nu and Nl are the upper level and lower level populations respectively, gu and gl the statistical weights, ΔE = hν the energy difference between the states, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and h→ Planck's constant. The higher the energy of the occupied states, the higher the excitation temperature.