An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 639
excenter
  اسمرکز، برون-مرکز   
osmarkaz, borun-markaz

Fr.: excentre   

The center of an → excircle.

ex-; → center.

except
  ۱) سگرت، به سگرت ِ؛ ۲) سگرتیدن   
1) sogert, bé sogert-e; 2) sogertidan

Fr.: excepté, à l'exception de, sauf, hormis   

1) With the exclusion of; excluding.
2) To exclude; leave out.

From M.Fr. excepter , from L. exceptus, p.p. of excipere  "to take out," from → ex- "out" + capere "to take," → concept.

Sogert, from so-, variants zo- and os-, → ex- "out," + gert- "to take," → concept; cf. Mid.Pers. Parthian zgirw- "to take out," from uz- "ex-" + girw- "to take."

exception
  سگرتش   
sogerteš

Fr.: exception   

1) The act of excepting or the fact of being excepted.
2) Something excepted. 

Verbal noun of → except.

exceptional
  سگرتشی   
sogerešti

Fr.: exceptionnel   

Forming an exception; not ordinary.

exception; → -al.

excess
  فزونی، فرهبود   
fozuni (#), ferehbud

Fr.: excès   

The state or an instance of surpassing usual, proper, or specified limits. → color excess; → infrared excess.

From L. excessus "going beyond bounds," from stem of excedere "to go beyond," from → ex- "out" + cedere "to go, yield;" cf. Gk. hodos "way;" PIE base *ked- "to go, yield."

Fozuni, from afzuni "excess," afzuni kardan "to exceed bounds," from afzudan "to add, increase," from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."
Ferehbud "excess" (Mid.Pers. frehbūd "excess"), from Mod.Pers. fereh, firih "much; more" + bud "to be." The first component fereh, from Mid.Pers. frây "more, much," from Av. frāyah- "more; too much, very much" (frāyô.humata- "rich in good thoughts"). The second component bud, budan "to be," from Mid.Pers. budan, from O.Pers./Av. bav- "to be; become, take place;" Av. buta- perf. ptcpl. pass., bavaiti "becomes" (cf. Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," bhavah "becoming; condition, state;" PIE *bheu- "to be, come into being, become;" Gk. phu- "become," phuein "to bring forth, make grow;" L. fui "I was" (perf. tense of esse), futurus "that is to be, future;" Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist; E. to be; O.Ir. bi'u "I am;" Lith. bu'ti "to be;" Rus. byt' "to be").

exchange
  ۱) گهولیدن؛ ۲) گهول، گهولش   
1) gahulidan (#); 2) gahul, gahuleš

Fr.: 1) échanger; 2) échange   

1) To give and receive reciprocally.
2) The act, process, or an instance of exchanging. → exchange force, → exchange particle, → Prevost's law of exchanges.

O.Fr. eschangier, from V.L. *excambiare, from L. → ex- "out" + cambire "barter."

Mod.Pers. gahulidan "to exchange," Kurd. guhartin/guhêr- "to exchange," Mid.Pers. wihir "to change," wihirišn "change," Manichean Mid.Pers. hr'g; Buddhist Mid.Pers. hlg "duty, tribute; work, effort;" Arm. loanword hark "duty, tribute;" Ar. loanword xarj "expense," xarâj "land, property tax;" Proto-Iranian *har- "to barter, trade; to pay tribute;" IE cognates: Gk. elein "to take (by force)," elor "loot, booty, catch;" Goth. saljan "to bring, to sacrifice;" O.E. sellan "to hand over, sell;" O.H.G. sala "delivery of goods."

exchange force
  نیروی ِ گهولی   
niru-ye gahuli

Fr.: force d'échange   

The force that governs the exchange of particles in the interaction between bodies. → exchange particle.

exchange, → force.

exchange particle
  ذره‌ی ِ گهولی   
zarre-ye gahuli

Fr.: particule d'échange   

In quantum field theory, a particle that transfers momentum and energy between interacting objects, and is said to mediate the interaction. All four of the fundamental forces involve the exchange of one or more particles. For example, photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force.

exchange, → particle.

excimer
  اکسی‌مر   
eksimer

Fr.: excimère   

Chemistry: A complex formed from combination of a molecule with another molecule of the same type but in an → excited state. In other words, a → dimer in an electronically excited state. See also → exciplex.

From exci-, from → excited, + -mer, from → dimer.

exciplex
  اکسی‌پلکس   
eksipleks

Fr.: exciplexe   

Chemistry: A complex formed by association of a molecule in an → excited state and another molecule of a different type. See also → excimer.

From exci-, from → excited, + -plex, from → complex.

excircle
  اسپرهون   
osparhun

Fr.: excercle   

For a → triangle with two sides extended in the direction opposite their common → vertex, a circle that lies outside the triangle and is tangent to the three sides (two of them extended). The center of the excircle, called the → excenter, is the point of intersection of the bisector of the interior angle and the bisector of the exterior angles at the other two vertices.

ex-; → circle.

excise
  اسوندن   
osundan

Fr.: exciser   

To cut out or off; to remove

M.E., from M.Fr. exciser, from L. excisus, p.p. of excidere "cut out, cut down, cut off," from → ex- + caedere "to cut," → precise.

Osunidan, from os-, → ex- + sun "cut," → precise.

excision
  اسونش   
osuneš

Fr.: excision   

The act of removal; an excising. The surgical removal of a foreign body or of tissue.

Verbal noun of → excise.

excitation
  بر انگیزش   
barangizeš (#)

Fr.: excitation   

1) The addition of → energy to an → atomic or → molecular system, → transferring it from its → ground state to an → excited state.
2) A property of an → emission nebula usually expressed by the ratio [O III] 5007Å/Hβ.

Verbal noun of → excite; → -tion.

excitation energy
  کاروژ ِ بر انگیزش   
kâruž-e barangizeš

Fr.: énergie d'excitation   

Amount of energy (usually measured in → electron-volts) required to bring an electron from its → ground state to a given → excited state.

excitation; → energy.

excitation potential
  توند ِ بر‌انگیزش   
tavand-e barangizeš

Fr.: potentiel d'excitation   

In quantum mechanics, the energy that is necessary to change a system from a → ground state to a given → excited state; also called excitation energy.

excitation; → potential.

excitation temperature
  دمای ِ بر‌‌انگیزش   
damâ-ye barangizeš

Fr.: température d'excitation   

Of a gas or plasma, the temperature deduced from the → populations of atomic → excited states, as expressed by the Boltzmann formula: Nu/Nl = (gu/gl) exp (-ΔE/kTex), where Nu and Nl are the upper level and lower level populations respectively, gu and gl the statistical weights, ΔE = hν the energy difference between the states, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and hPlanck's constant. The higher the energy of the occupied states, the higher the excitation temperature.

excitation; → temperature.

excite
  بر‌انگیختن   
barangixtan (#)

Fr.: exciter   

Verb of → excitation.

From L. excitare "to rouse, produce," freq. of exciere "to call forth, instigate," from → ex- "out" + ciere "to move, set in motion;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro" (cf. Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Mod.Pers. šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. seuo "I start quickly after," kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call").

Barangixtan, from intensive prefix bar- "on, upon, up," → on-, + angixtan, angizidan "to excite, stimulate," from Mid.Pers. hangêxtan, hangêz- "to arouse, stimulate, stir up," from Proto-Iranian *hamgaiz-, from ham-, → com-, + *gaiz- "to disturb, stir, excite." The Mod.Pers. gij, giž "confused, astonished, dizzy" is from this stem (Cheung 2007).

excited atom
  اتم ِ بر‌انگیخته   
atom-e barangixté (#)

Fr.: atome excité   

An atom in which one or more of its bound electrons are at → energy levels higher than their normal level.

Excited p.p. of → excite; → atom.

excited state
  حالت ِ بر‌انگیخته   
hâlat-e barangixté (#)

Fr.: état excité   

The condition of a particle or system of particles (especially an atom, nucleus, molecule) after absorbing energy from outside and transiting to a higher → energy level than that of its → ground state. Excited states are transitory as they lose energy through emissions or collisions and return to ground state.

Excited, p.p. of → excite; → state.

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