An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 639
external photoelectric effect
  اسکر ِ شید-برقی ِ برونی   
oskar-e šid-barqi-ye boruni

Fr.: effet photoélectrique externe   

The → photoelectric effect in solids where free electrons are emitted from the surface of a substance (e.g., → semiconductor) when radiation of appropriate frequency falls on it. Also called → photoemissive effect.

external; → photoelectric; → effect.

external work
  کار ِ بیرونی   
kâr-e biruni

Fr.: travail externe   

The work done by a thermodynamic system as it expands against its surrounding environment. It is equal to ∫pdV, where p is the applied external pressure and V the volume, integrated from the initial V1 to final V2.

external; → work.

externalization
  برونش   
boruneš

Fr.: extériorisation   

Verbal noun of → externalize.

externalize + → -tion.

externalize
  برونیدن   
borunidan

Fr.: intériorisation   

1) To make external; embody in an outward form.
2) To regard or treat as being caused by externals; attribute to external causes (Dictionary.com).

external + → -ize.

extinction
  خاموشی   
xâmuši (#)

Fr.: extinction   

1) Dimming of light by an intervening medium (the Earth's atmosphere or the interstellar medium). It is usually due to both scattering and absorption.
2) Paleontology: The act or process of dying out or coming to an end, becoming extinct: the extinction of a species; → mass extinction.

Noun of extinct, from L. extinctus, p.p. of extinguere "to quench, wipe out," from → ex- "out" + stinguere "to quench," from PIE base *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce;" cf. Mod.Pers. tiz, tež, tig, tej, tij, tiq "sharp;" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow;" → deblur.

Xâmuši, noun of xâmuš "extinguished; silent," Mid.Pers. xâmôš "silent;" cf. Skt. amrs- "to bear patiently."

extinction coefficient
  همگر ِ خاموشی   
hamgar-e xâmuši

Fr.: coefficient d'extinction   

Gradient of apparent magnitude with air mass.

extinction; → coefficient.

extinction correction
  ارشایش ِ خاموشی   
aršâyeš-e xâmuši

Fr.: correction d'extinction   

In → photometric calibration, the correction for energy loss undergone by radiation due to the → atmospheric extinction. Extinction correction is done using → standard stars observed at different → airmasses.

extinction; → correction.

extinction curve
  خم ِ خاموشی   
xam-e xâmuši

Fr.: courbe de l'extinction interstellaire   

A graph representing the variation of the → interstellar extinction against → wavelength. Usually it displays the → normalized values of extinction as a function of (the → inverse) of the wavelength (in → microns). See, e.g., Sandage & Mathis, 1979, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 73.

extinction; → curve.

extinction stars
  ستارگان ِ خاموشی   
setâregân-e xâmuši

Fr.: étoiles d'extinction   

Stars specifically observed at selected air masses in view of determining the atmospheric extinction coefficients.

extinction; → star.

extra-
  استر-، برون-   
ostar-, borun- (#)

Fr.: extra-   

Prefix meaning "outside; beyond the scope of; in addition to what is used or expected." Also extro-.

M.E., from L. extra, adverb and preposition, "outside, except, beyond," from exter "outward, on the outside."

Ostar-, from os-, → ex-, + -tar comparative suffix (Mid.Pers. -tar; Av. -tara; PIE base *-tero); borun-, from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river").

extragalactic
  استرکهکشانی، برون‌کهکشانی   
ostar-kahkašâni, borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: extragalactique   

Of, pertaining to, or dealing with the space beyond the Milky Way.

From → extra- + → galactic.

extragalactic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ استرکهکشانی، ~ برون‌کهکشانی   
axtaršenâi-ye ostar-kahkašâni, ~ borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: astronomie extragalactique   

The branch of astronomy that deals with objects beyond the Milky Way, especially galaxies and quasars.

extragalactic; → astronomy.

extragalactic background light (EBL)
  نور ِ پس-زمینه‌ی ِ استر-کهکشانی   
nur-e paszimine-ye ostarkahkeši

Fr.: lumière du fond extragalactique   

The integrated intensity of all of the light emitted throughout the history of the Universe across the whole of the → electromagnetic spectrum, including those which are not individually detected. The EBL spectrum includes cosmological backgrounds associated with either primordial phenomena, such as the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), or photons emitted by stars, galaxies and → active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to → nucleosynthesis or other → radiative processes, including → dust scattering, → absorption and reradiation. The EBL may also contain signals that are diffuse and extended, including high-energy photons associated with dark matter particle decays or annihilation.

extragalactic; → background; → light.

extraordinary
  استرشونیک   
ostaršunik

Fr.: extraordinaire   

1) Beyond what is usual, ordinary, regular, or established.
2) Exceptional in character, amount, extent, degree, etc. (Dictionary.com). → unordinary.

extra-; → ordinary.

extraordinary ray
  پرتو ِ استرشونیک   
partov-e ostaršunik

Fr.: rayon extraordinaire   

When a beam of → unpolarized light is incident on a → doubly refracting crystal, there will be two refracted rays. The ray for which → Snell's law does not hold.

extraordinary; → ray.

extrapolate
  برون‌یافتن   
borunyâftan (#)

Fr.: extrapoler   

Math.: To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values.

From → extra- + (inter)polate, → interpolate.

From borun, → extra- + yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."

extrapolation
  برون‌یابش   
borunyâbeš (#)

Fr.: extrapolation   

Predicting the value of unknown data points by projecting a function beyond the range of known data points.

Verbal noun of → extrapolate.

extrasolar
  اُسترخورشیدی   
ostarxoršidi

Fr.: extrasolaire   

Not belonging to the → solar system; outside, or originating outside, the solar system.

extra-; → solar.

extrasolar planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ اُسترخورشیدی   
sayyâre-ye ostarxoršidi

Fr.: planète extrasolaire   

A planet which belongs to a star other than → Sun, and therefore does not belong to our → solar system; same as → exoplanet.

extrasolar; → planet.

extraterrestrial
  اُسترزمینی   
ostarzamini

Fr.: extraterrestre   

1) (adj.) Of or from outside the limits of the Earth.
2) (n.) A hypothetical extraterrestrial being; → alien.

extra- + → terrestrial.

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