An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 655
etch
  باتیزاب‌کندن، اچیدن   
bâ tizâb kandan, ecidan

Fr.: graver à eau forte   

1) To cut, bite, or corrode with an acid or the like; engrave with an acid or the like, as to form a design in furrows that when charged with ink will give an impression on paper.
2) To produce (a design, image, etc.) by this method, as on copper or glass (Dictionary.com).
3) Astro.: To cut or corrode an → iron meteorite with a strong → acid to reveal its hidden → crystalline structure.

From Du. etsen, from Ger. ätzen "to etch," from O.H.G. azzon "to cause to bite, feed," ultimately from PIE root *ed- "to eat;" cf. Av. ad- "to eat;" Mod.Pers. âš "thick brew, soup" (from O.Pers. *āšyā-, Proto-Ir. *HasH- "to eat"); Skt. ad- "to eat;" Gk. edo "I eat;" Lith. edu "I eat;" O.Irish ithim "I eat;" O.E. etan, O.H.G. essan, Ger. essen "to eat."

Bâ tizâb kandan, literally "to dig with acid," from "with," tizâb "acid," kandan "to dig;" ecidan, from E. etch, cognate with Pers. âš, as above.

etching
  تیزاب-کند، اچش   
tizâb-kand, eceš

Fr.: gravure à eau forte   

1) The act or process of making designs or pictures on a metal plate, glass, etc., by the corrosive action of an acid instead of by a burin.
2) An impression, as on paper, taken from an etched plate.
3) The design so produced (Dictionary.com).
4) The act or process of cutting a smooth cross section of a → meteorite with → acid to reveal its → crystal structure.

Verbal noun of → etch.

ethane
  اتان   
etân (#)

Fr.: éthane   

A colorless, odorless → hydrocarbon, C2H6, which occurs with → methane in natural gas.

From eth-, from → ethyl, + -ane a suffix used in names of hydrocarbons of the methane or paraffin series.

ethanol
  اتانول   
etanol (#)

Fr.: éthanol   

An → alcohol having molecular formula C2H5OH. It is a colorless inflammable liquid with a characteristic odor. Ethanol is produced by fermentation of sugar: C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2. It is the active constituent of alcoholic beverages. It is used as a fuel and as a solvent in the extraction of specific substances. It is also known as → ethyl alcohol. Ethanol in the → interstellar medium was first detected toward the → Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud at 82.265, 90.118, and 104.809 GHz (B. Zuckerman et al. 1975, ApJ 196, L99).

Short for → ethyl alcohol.

ether
  اِتِر   
eter (#)

Fr.: ether   

1) Physics: A hypothetical medium filling all space formerly postulated to account for the propagation of → electromagnetic radiation through space. In order to facilitate description and to provide a physical explanation of various phenomena involving action at a distance and electromagnetism, a medium had been postulated with mechanical properties adjusted to provide a consistent theory. In 1887 Michelson and Morley attempted to measure the motion of the Earth through the ether. No such motion was detected. The → Michelson-Morley experiment has been repeated under different conditions, but the hypothesis of a stationary ether through which the Earth moves is not verified.
2) The substance supposed by Aristotle to constitute stars and fill the outer space.
3) Chemistry: A family of organic compounds with the general formula R-O-R', where R and R' are hydrocarbon radicals. In particular diethyl ether, C2H5OC2H5, which is a volatile colorless liquid with a pleasant smell.

From L. æther "the upper air, pure air," from Gk. aither "upper air," from aithein "to burn, shine."

ether drag
  کره‌ی ِ اتر   
kerre-ye eter

Fr.: entraînement de l'éther   

A hypothesis put forward to explain the null measurement of the → ether drift. According to this hypothesis, the Earth somehow drags the ether with it as our planet rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun. However, the ether drag hypothesis contradicts results from several experiments, including the → aberration of starlight.

ether; → drag.

ether drift
  دلک ِ اتر   
delek-e eter

Fr.: dérive de l'éther   

1) The hypothetical motion of the supposed → ether relative to the Earth. The → Michelson-Morley experiment found no ether drift. An analogy is given by a boat drifting in a fast-flowing river due to the river's current. With the same power, the speed would be slower when sailing across the stream. Moreover, in order to reach directly opposite the starting point, the boat would have to be headed somewhat upstream. See also the → ether drag.
2) The motion of the Earth relative to the → rest frame defined by the → cosmic microwave background radiation.

ether; → drift.

ethno-
  قوم-   
qowm- (#)

Fr.: ethno-   

A combining form meaning "race, culture, people."

From Gk. ethnos "people, nation, class, tribe."

Qowm- loan from Ar. qaum "people, tribe, family."

ethnoastronomy
  قوم‌اخترشناسی   
qowm-axtarshenâsi

Fr.: ethnologie   

The study of the beliefs, interpretations, and practices of specific cultures regarding celestial objects or phenomena. Ethnoastronomy uses the tools and methodologies of → ethnology in the study of astronomical conceptions.

ethno-; → astronomy.

ethnology
  قوم‌شناسی   
qowmšenâsi

Fr.: ethnologie   

The study of specific cultures (ethnic groups) in their different aspects (anthropological, social, cultural, etc.) to establish similarities and disparities between them.

ethno-; → logy.

ethyl
  اتیل   
etil (#)

Fr.: éthyl   

A chemical group, C2H5, produced by removing a hydrogen atom from → ethane. For example, ethyl chloride is C2H5Cl

From Ger. Ethyl, from eth-, from → ether, + -yl a suffixed used in the names of radicals.

ethyl alcohol
  اتیل الکل   
etil alkol (#)

Fr.: éthyl alcool   

Same as → ethanol.

ethyl; → alcohol.

etymology
  ریشه‌شناسی   
riše-šenâsi (#)

Fr.: étymologie   

The study of the origins and history of the form and meaning of → words.

M.E., from L. etymologia, from Gk. etymologia, from etymon "true sense" (neuter of etymos) + logos, → -logy.

Riše-šenâsi, from rišé "root" (dialectal Tabari rexa; Kurd. regez, riše), from Mid.Pers. rêšak "root," maybe ultimately related to PIE *u(e)rad-, although the Skt. offshoot is absent (Gk. rhiza "root;" L. radix, radius "staff;" O.H.G. wurz "plant, herb;" Ger. Wurz; O.E. rot; E. root) + -šenâsi, → -logy.

eu-
  هو-   
hu- (#)

Fr.: eu-   

A prefix meaning "good, well; true, genuine" (eupepsia; eukaryote); opposed to → dys-.

L. from Gk. eu "well," combining form of eus "good" (hu-gies "healthy"); cf. Mid.Pers. hu-; Av. hu- "good;" PIE base *su- "good," see below.

Mid.Pers. hu- "good, well" (hu-boy "sweet-smelling," hu-cihr "beautiful," hu-mânih "good-mindedness"); O.Pers. hu- "good, well" (ukāra- "having good people"); Av. hu-, hū- "well, good, beautiful" (hu-kərp- "well-shapen," hūxta- "well spoken," hu-manah- "good-minded"); Skt. su- "good" (svasti "well-being, good luck," sumánas- "good-minded," sūktá- "well spoken"); Gallic su-; O.S. su-; Welsh hy-; PIE base *su-, as above.

Euclidean
  اقلیدوسی   
Oqlidosi (#)

Fr.: euclidien   

Of or pertaining to Euclid, or his postulates. → Euclidean division, → Euclidean geometry, → Euclidean space, → non-Euclidean geometry.

After the Gk. geometrician and educator at Alexandria, around 300 B.C., who applied the deductive principles of logic to geometry, thereby deriving statements from clearly defined axioms.

Euclidean division
  بخش ِ اقلیدوسی   
baxš-e Oqlidosi

Fr.: division euclidienne   

In arithmetic, the conventional process of division of two → integers. For a → real number a divided by b > 0, there exists a unique integer q and a real number r, 0 ≤ r <b, such that a = qb + r.

Euclidean; → division.

Euclidean geometry
  هندسه‌ی ِ اقلیدوسی   
hendese-ye Oqlidosi (#)

Fr.: géométrie euclidienne   

The geometry based on the postulates or descriptions of Euclid. One of the critical assumptions of the Euclidean geometry is given in his fifth postulate: through a point not on a line, one and only one line be drawn parallel to the given line. See also → non-Euclidean geometry.

Euclidean; → geometry.

Euclidean space
  فضای ِ اقلیدوسی   
fazâ-ye Oqlidosi

Fr.: espace euclidean   

A space in which the → distance between any two points is given by the → Pythagorean theorem: d2 = (Δx)2 + (Δy)2 + (Δz)2, where d is distance and Δx, Δy, and Δz are differential → Cartesian coordinates. Euclidean n-space Rn is the set of all column vectors with n real entries.

Euclidean; → space.

Eudoxan spheres
  سپهرهای ِ اءودوکسوس   
sepehrhâ-ye Eudoxus

Fr.: sphères d'Eudoxe   

spheres of Eudoxus.

spheres of Eudoxus.

Euler
  اویلر   
Euler

Fr.: Euler   

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), the eminent Swiss mathematician, physicist, and astronomer.

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