General: A period of time marked by a distinctive character,
From L.L. æra, era "fixed date, era, epoch from which time is reckoned," probably identical with L. æra "counters used for calculation," plural of aes "brass, money," from PIE *aus- "gold" (cf. Av. aiiah- "metal," aiianhaēna- "made of metal;" Skt. áyas- "metal;" O.H.G. ēr "ore;" O.E. ora "ore, unworked metal;" Ger. ehern "brazen").
Dowrân, from Ar. daur "age, time; revolution."
Fr.: méthode d'Eratosthène
A simple way of calculating the Earth's → circumference using two sticks and two theorems of the → Euclidean geometry. Eratosthenes calculated the length of a → meridian arc by measuring the shadow cast by a vertical → gnomon at noon on the → summer solstice. In Cyene (→ tropic of Cancer), no shadow is cast whereas in Alexandria, further north, the shadow is cast at an angle of 1/50 of 360° (measured using a → scaphe), or 7.2°, from the vertical. The circumference is therefore equal to 50 times the distance between the two cities. The distance from Syene to Alexandria was 5,000 stadia, which when multiplied by 50 gives the measure for the Earth's circumference, 250,000 stadia. Estimating the accuracy of this result is not easy because the unit of stadium is not uniquely defined in the ancient world. The most likely reconstruction puts Eratosthenes' stadium in the range 155-185m, implying an error of about 3% below or 15% above the true value. The modern value for the equatorial circumference of the Earth is 40,075 km. As scholars have pointed out, Eratosthenes' experiment was marred by several errors: Syene is not on the Tropic of cancer, it is not on the same meridian as Alexandria, and the distance between the two cities is less than he estimated. But the errors tended to cancel each other out, so his estimate was relatively accurate. See also: → Mamun's method, → Biruni's method.
Eratosthenes (c. 276-194 B.C.), Gk. mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. He studied in Athens and later became a librarian in Alexandria. His treatise On the Measuring of the Earth is lost. The account of his experiment has been preserved in Cleomedes (probably first century A.D.). See also → sieve of Eratosthenes; → experiment.
From Gk. ergon "work," from PIE base *werg- "to work" (cf. Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue").
The property of a dynamical system such that in an interval of sufficient duration, it will return to states that are closely similar to previous ones.
The study of the relationship between people and their working environment, in particular its effect on a person's efficiency. Ergonomics is applied in designing equipment and office systems to maximize productivity by reducing discomfort and fatigue of people in their workplace.
The region between the → event horizon and the → stationary limit of a rotating → Kerr black hole. It is possible for a particle falling inside the ergosphere to break into two parts, one of which will fall into the black hole and the other will come out.
The River. An extensive constellation in the southern hemisphere that takes windings between 1h20 and 5h 10m right ascension, 0° to 58° south declination. Despite its size, there are not many bright stars in this constellation. Notable are → Achernar and ε Eri, a dwarf star of magnitude 4.6 and type K2, which is just 10.7 light years away. Abbreviation: Eri; genitive: Eridani.
From Gk. Eridanos, a river god, a son of Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Zeuxippe. A purely mythical river which may have been named Eridanos ("Early Burnt") from the story of Phaethon, the boy who attempted to drive the chariot of the sun, and fell flaming into the waters of this mythical river.
Rud, → river.
A → dwarf planet which is a → trans-Neptunian object (TNO) with an orbital → eccentricity of 0.44, an → inclination of 44 degrees and a surface composition very similar to that of → Pluto. It orbits the Sun as far as twice Pluto's distance from the Sun. → Occultation observations carried out in 2010 were used to measure the size of Eris accurately. Eris's newly determined diameter is 2326±12 km. The observations show that Eris is an almost perfect twin of Pluto in size. They also reveal a very reflective surface, with an → albedo of 0.96, suggesting that it is uniformly covered in a thin layer of ice, probably a frozen atmosphere (Sicardy et al. 2011, Nature 478, 493). Like Pluto, Eris has a moon, which has been officially named by the → International Astronomical Union as (136199) Eris I (→ Dysnomia). The informal names of Eris were Xena and 2003 UB313.
Named after Eris the Gk. goddess of chaos and strife. She created a quarrel among goddesses that led to the Trojan War.
The act or state of eroding; state of being eroded.
From M.Fr. erosion, from L. erosionem (nom. erosio), from erodere "to gnaw away," from → ex- "away" + rodere "to gnaw, eat away" (cf. Fr. and E. animal rat).
Farsâyeš, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant" (Mid.Pers. fra- "forward, before; much; around;" O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; excessive;" cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron;" Gk. pro "before, in front of;" L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" PIE *pro-) + verbal noun of sâyidan, variants sâbidan "to bruise, file," pasâvidan "to touch;" Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Proto-Iranian *sau- "to rub."
Same as → Gamma Cephei.
From Ar. ar-râ'i (
irang (#), xatâ (#)
1) A deviation from accuracy or correctness; a mistake.
From O.Fr. erreur, from L. errorem (nom. error) "a wandering, straying, mistake," from errare "to wander."
Irang, from Mid.Pers. êrang "error, mistake;" xatâ, from Ar.
band-e irang, ~ xatâ
Fr.: barre d'erreur
On a graph displaying the results of a measurement, the dash used to indicate the confidence range of the value attributed to a quantity.
→ error; bar, from O.Fr. barre, from V.L. *barra "bar, barrier," or perhaps from Gaulish *barro "summit."
Band "that which closes, shuts, blocks," from bastan, band- "to shut, bind," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind); → error.
Fr.: entrer en éruption
To burst forth; to eject matter (of a star, volcano, geyser, etc.). → eruptive variable.
From L eruptus "burst forth, broken out," p.p. of erumpere "to break out, burst forth," from → ex- "out" + rumpere "to break, rupture."
Osdaridan, from os-, → ex- + daridan "to tear, rend, lacerate;" Mid.Pers. darridan "to tear, split;" Av. dar- "to tear," dərəta- "cut," auua.dərənant- "shattering;" cf. Skt. dar- "to crack, split, break, burst," darati "he splits;" Gk. derein "to flay," derma "skin;" P.Gmc. *teran; O.E. teran; E. tear; Ger. zerren "to pull, to tear," zehren "to undermine, to wear out;" PIE base *der- " to split, peel, flay."
1) An act, process, or instance of erupting; something that is erupted or ejected.
Verbal noun of → erupt.
Relating to, formed by, characterized by, or producing → eruption.
Fr.: objet éruptif
Fr.: protubérance éruptive
A huge solar prominence which has previously been quiescent but suddenly starts to lift up from the → photosphere with velocities of several hundred km/s and escapes into the → interplanetary space. Eruptive prominences with the highest velocities have been observed at 1300 km/s, reaching heights of 1 million km above the photosphere. Such prominences are often observed at the solar limb, in association with → coronal mass ejections. On the Sun's disk, the equivalent phenomenon is an eruptive filament.
Fr.: variable éruptive
same as → cataclysmic variable.
1) gorixtan, 2) goriz (#)
Fr.: 1) échapper, s'échapper; 2) échapement
1) To get away; to get free of.
From M.E. escapen; O.Fr. eschaper, from V.L. *excappare, literally "to get out of one's cape, leave a pursuer with just one's cape," from L. → ex- "out" + L.L. cappa "mantle."
Gorixtan, goriz- "to escape; to flee, run away;" Mid.Pers. virextan; Proto-Iranian *vi-raik, from vi- "apart, asunder" + *raik; Av. raek- "to leave, set free, let off;" Mid./Mod.Pers. reg/rig (in mordé-rig "inheritance"); Skt. ric- "to leave," rinakti "gives up, evacuates;" Gk. leipein "to leave;" L. linquere "to leave;" from PIE *linkw-, from *leikw- "to leave behind" (cf. Goth. leihvan; O.E. lænan "to lend;" O.H.G. lihan "to borrow;" O.N. lan "loan").
Fr.: vitesse d'échapement
The speed an object must attain in order to free itself from the gravitational influence of an astronomical body. It is the minimum velocity for the object to enter a parabolic trajectory. The escape velocity is given by: Ve = (2GM/r)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the astronomical body, and r is its radius. The escape velocity of the Earth is about 11.2 km s-1, that of the Moon is 2.4 km s-1, and that of the Sun about 618 km s-1.