An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 634
mohandes (#)

Fr.: ingénieur   

A person who designs, constructs, or works with engines or machines.

M.E. engin(e)our, from O.Fr. engigneor, from L.L. ingeniare, → engine.

Mohandes, from Ar. muhandis "measurer," from Pers. andâzé, → measure.

mohandesi (#)

Fr.: ingénierie   

The action, work, or profession of an engineer.

engineer + → -ing.

English mounting
  برنشاند ِ انگلیسی   
barnešând-e englisi

Fr.: monture anglaise   

A method of mounting a telescope in which the polar axis is supported at each end by two piers. The great defect of this type of mounting is its inability to observe the pole.



Fr.: rehausser, accroître   

To raise to a higher degree; intensify; magnify (

M.E. enhauncen, from Anglo-Fr. enhauncer, from O.Fr. enhaucier "make higher, make greater; raise in esteem," from V.L. *inaltiare, from L.L. inaltare "raise, exalt," from altare "make high," from altus "high."

Bolandidan, from boland "high," related to bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz, "height, magnitude," → magnitude.


Fr.: rehaussement, accroissement   

An increase or improvement in value, extent, or quality.

Verbal noun of → enhance.


Fr.: énigme   

A puzzling or inexplicable occurrence or situation. See also: → problem, → puzzle.

From L. aenigma "riddle," from Gk. ainigma "a dark saying, riddle," from ainissesthai "speak obscurely, speak in riddles," from ainos "tale, story; saying, proverb;" of unknown origin.

Câceh, from Baluci (Zâhedân) câcâk "riddle, puzzle;" cf. (Kermânšâhi) câvca "riddle, puzzle" (Fin-e Bandar-Abbâs) cencen "riddle;" maybe related to Choresmian c'tyk "riddle," from Proto-Ir. *caš- "to teach, to show;" Av. *caš- "to teach, to show" (Cheung 2007).


Fr.: énigmatique   

Resembling an enigma, or a puzzling occurrence, situation, statement, person, etc.; perplexing; mysterious (

enigma; → -ic.

Cušenâk, from cušé, → enigma, + -nâk adj. suffix.

  عصر ِ روشنگری   
asr-e rowšangari (#)

Fr.: Siècle des Lumières   

An intellectual movement in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries celebrating human reason and scientific thought as the instruments of progress and subjecting conventional ways of thinking to rigorous critique. The Enlightenment culminated with the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and the Encyclopédistes, the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), and the political ideals of the French and American Revolutions, while the precursor in science and philosophy included Francis Bacon (1561-1626), René Descartes (1596-1650), Isaac Newton (1643-1727), John Locke (1632-1704), and Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679).

From enlighten, from en- + → light + -en + → -ment.

Asr, → age; rowšangari, noun from rowšangar "enlightener," from rowšan "light, bright, luminous, splendid," cognate with L. lux, → bright, + -gar a suffix of agent nouns, → -or.

  پرداریدن، پردار کردن   
pordâridan, pordâr kardan

Fr.: enrichir   

To increase the → concentration or → abundance of a specified → component or → isotope in a material.

From en- a prefix forming verbs with a particular sense + → rich.

Pordâridan, pordâr kardan, infinitives from pordâr, → rich.


Fr.: enrichi   

Supplied with abundance of something. → enriched gas, → enriched uranium.

Past participle of → enrich.

enriched gas
  گاز ِ پرداریده   
gâz-e pordâridé

Fr.: gaz enrichi   

A gas, usually → interstellar, in which the → abundance of particular chemical or atomic species is higher than the expected values.

enriched; → gas.

enriched uranium
  اورانیوم ِ پرداریده   
urânium-e pordâridé

Fr.: uranium enrichi   

Uranium in which the → proportion of the → isotope U-235 has been increased (above the 0.7% value in natural uranium).

enriched; → uranium.


Fr.: enrichissement   

1) A process that changes the → isotopic ratio in a material. For example, for uranium the ratio of U-235 to U-238 may be increased by gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride.
2) → chemical enrichment.

Verbal noun of → enrich.


Fr.: enstatite   

A relatively common mineral, magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) found in metamorphic and some igneous rocks as well as in stony and iron meteorites.

From Gk. enstates "resistor", because it resists high temperatures.

enstatite chondrite
  کوندریت ِ استاتیت   
kondrite-e enstâtit

Fr.: chondrite enstatite   

A rare kind of → meteorite containing the → enstatite mineral. These meteorites are thought to comprise only about 2% of the chondrites that fall on Earth. Also called → E-type chondrite.

enstatite; → chondrite.

  هم‌گوریدن، هم‌پیچیدن   
ham-guridan, ham-picidan

Fr.: emmêler   

To wrap or twist together; to intertwine.

From → en- "in," + tangle, from M.E. tangilen, tagilen "to entangle."

Hamgureš, from ham- "together," → com-, + guridan "to become tangled, as threads or hairs, entwine," probably related to greh "knot," → node.
Hampicidan, from ham- + picidan "to twist, entwine, coil."

  هم‌گورش، هم‌پیچی   
ham-gureš, ham-pici

Fr.: emmêlment   

The act of entangling. The state of being entangled.

Verbal noun of → entangle; → -ment.

  ۱) در‌آمدن، در‌آییدن؛ ۲) در‌آیاندن   
1) darâmadan, darâyidan; 2) darâyândan

Fr.: 1) entrer; 2) faire entrer   

1) To come or go in.
2) To put in or insert. See also → entrance, → entry.

M.E. entren, from O.Fr. entrer, from L. intrare "to enter," from intra "within," → inter-.

Darâmadan, from dar, → in-, + âmadan, "to come," → egress; darâyidan, from dar- "in," + ây preset stem of âmadan, → assembly, + -idan infinitive suffix; darâyândan transitive of darâyidan.

darungarmi (#)

Fr.: enthalpie   

A quantity associated with a thermodynamic system and given by H = U + pV, where H is the enthalpy, U the internal energy, p the pressure, and V the volume.

Gk. enthalp(ein) "to warm in," from en- "in, into, within" + thalpein "to warm" + -y a suffix used in the formation of action nouns from verbs.

Darungarmi, from darun "in, into, within" (Mid.Pers. andarôn "inside," from andar, → inter- + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + garm "warm" (Mid.Pers. garm; O.Pers./Av. garema- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" Gk. thermos "warm;" L. formus "warm," fornax "oven;" P.Gmc. *warmaz; O.E. wearm; O.H.G., Ger. warm; from PIE base *ghworm-/*ghwerm-) + -i a suffix used in the formation of action nouns from verbs.

hastâr (#)

Fr.: entité   

1) A real thing.
2) Being or existence, especially when considered as independent, separate, or self-contained.
3) Computer science: Something about which data is recorded. Entities have → attributes.

From L.L. entitatem, from L.L. ens (genitive entis) "being, thing," from esse "to be," cognate with Pers. hast, ast, as below.

Hastâr, from hast (noun), as in hast-o-nist, or contraction of hasti "existence," from hastan "to be" (variant astan, ast "is;" Mid.Pers. (h)ast "is," (h)astih "existence;" O.Pers. ah- "to be," astiy "is;" Av. ah- "to be" (ahmī, ahī, astī); cf. Skt. as- "to be," ásti "is;" Gk. esti "is;" L. est "is;" Russ. yest "is;" Goth. ist; E. is), + suffix -âr (as in padidâr). Alternatively, from hast (noun), as above, + -âr contraction of -dâr (as in dustâr) present stem of dâštan "to have, to possess" (Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

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