An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 665
endomorphism
  درون-ریخت‌مندی   
darun-rixtmandi

Fr.: endomorphisme   

A → morphism from an → object to itself.

endo-; → morphism.

endothermic process
  فراروند ِ گرماگیر   
farâravand-e garmâgir (#)

Fr.: processus endothermique   

Process during which heat is absorbed by the system from outside.

endo- + -therm, from Gk. therme "heat," from PIE *ghwerm-/*ghworm- "warm;" cf. Pers. garm "warm," L. fornax "an oven," O.E. wearm "warm" + → -ic.

From garmâ "heat, warmth" (Mid.Pers. garm, O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm," cf. Skt. gharmah "heat," Gk. thermos "warm," L. formus "warm," P.Gmc. *warmaz, O.E. wearm, O.H.G., Ger. warm, PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm-, as above) + gir present tense stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

energetic
  ۱) کاروژمند؛ ۲) کاروژی   
1) kâružmand; 2) kâruži

Fr.: 1) de grande énergie, énergique; 2) énergétique   

1) Having a relatively high amount of energy.
2) Of or relating to energy.

energy + -t + → -ic.

energetic solar particles
  ذره‌های ِ خورشیدی ِ کاروژمند   
zarrehâ-ye xoršidi-ye kâružmand

Fr.: particules solaires énergétiques   

Electrons and atomic nuclei ejected by solar flares, travelling with velocities amounting to a fraction of the velocity of light, and energies mostly in the range 1-100 million → electronvolts (eV), but occasionally as high as 15 billion eVs. Also known as solar → cosmic rays.

Energetic, from Gk. energetikos, from energe-, → energy, + -tikos a suffix, equivalent in meaning to → -ic, occurring in adjectives; → solar; → particle.

Zarrehâ plural of zarré, → particle; xoršidi, → solar; kâružmand from kâruž, → energy, + -mand possession suffix.

energetics
  کاروژیک   
kâružik

Fr.: énergétique   

The total energy relations and transformations of energy within a particular physical, chemical, or biological system.

energy + -t + → -ics.

energy
  کاروژ   
kâruž

Fr.: énergie   

In physics, capacity for doing work.

From M.Fr. energie, from L.L. energia, from Gk. energeia "force in action, activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en- "in, at" + ergon "work," from PIE base *werg- "to work" (cf. Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue").

Kâruž, literally "work strength," from kâr + . The first component kâr "work," Mid.Pers kâr, Mod./Mid.Pers. kardan "to do, to work," Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make." The second component, , from Mid.Pers. ôž "strength" (ôžômand "strong"), Av. aogah-, aojah- "strength" (aojahvant- "strong") Skt. ojas- "strength" (ojasvant- "strong"); L. augustus "venerable," L.L. augmentare "to increase," from augere "to increase, enlarge, enrich;" Lith. augu "to grow;" Gk. auxo "increase;" Goth. aukan "to grow, increase;" O.E. eacien "to increase"); PIE *augos- "force," *aug- "to increase."

energy cascade
  پی‌شار ِ کاروژ   
peyšâr-e kâruž

Fr.: cascade d'énergie   

The → turbulent process whereby → kinetic energy is transformed into heat by the action of nonlinear coupling which transfers the energy from large eddies (→ eddy) to smaller and smaller eddies, finally arriving at → dissipative scales dominated by → viscosity (direct cascade). In the simplest case (3D homogeneous hydrodynamic turbulence), the resulting energy distribution is the → Kolmogorov spectrum. The reverse process also exists (inverse cascade) whereby energy is transferred to larger and larger eddies.

energy; → cascade.

energy density
  چگالی ِ کاروژ   
cagâli-ye kâruž

Fr.: densité d'énergie   

The amount of energy in the form of radiation per unit volume, expressed in ergs cm-3. In particular, the energy density of blackbody radiation at temperature T is aT4, where the radiation constant a = 7.56 × 10-15 erg cm-3 (K)-4.

energy; → density.

energy generation equation
  هموگش ِ آزانش ِ کاروژ   
hamugeš-e âzâneš-e kâruž

Fr.: équation de génération d'énergie   

Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the equation describing the → energy generation rate as a function of → density and → temperature.

energy; → generation; → equation.

energy generation rate
  نرخ ِ آزانش ِ کاروژ   
nerx-e âzâneš-e kâruž

Fr.: taux de génération d'énergie   

Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the energy produced per unit mass per unit time, usually denoted ε (erg g-1s-1). The general form of the energy generation equation is: ε = ε0ρλTν, where ε0, ρ, and λ are constants over some efficiently restricted range of → temperature T, → density ρ, and → chemical composition. The temperature exponent ν is about 4, 15, and 40 for → proton-proton chain, → CNO cycle, and → triple alpha process, respectively.

energy; → generation; → rate.

energy level
  تراز ِ کاروژ   
tarâz-e kâruž

Fr.: niveau d'énergie   

Any of the several discrete states of energy which a particle, atom, or molecule can adopt under conditions where the possible values are restricted by quantum mechanical laws.

energy; → level.

energy spectrum
  بیناب ِ کاروژ   
binâb-e kâruž

Fr.: spectre d'énergie   

Of cosmic rays, the plot representing the number of particles as a function of their energy.

energy; → spectrum.

energy state
  حالت ِ کاروژ   
hâlat-e kâruž

Fr.: état d'énergie   

Same as → energy level.

energy; → state.

energy transfer
  تراوژ ِ کاروژ   
tarâvaž-e kâruž

Fr.: transfert d'énergie   

The → conversion of one → form of energy into another, or the movement of energy from one place or system to another.

energy; → transfer.

energy-momentum tensor
  تانسور ِ کاروژ-جنباک   
tânsor-e kâruž-jonbâk

Fr.: tenseur énergie-quantité de mouvement   

A tensor (Tμν) related to the → Einstein tensor through → Einstein's field equations. The energy-momentum tensor depends upon the distribution of the → energy and → matter in the space.

energy; → momentum; → tensor.

engine
  موتور   
motor (#)

Fr.: moteur   

1) Any machine that converts energy, especially heat energy, into mechanical power or motion.
2) The part of a processor or software program that determines how the program manages and manipulates data. The term is most often used in relation to a specific task.

M.E. engin, from O.Fr. engin "skill, cleverness; war machine," from L. ingenium "inborn qualities, talent," from → in- "in" + gen-, root of gignere "to beget, produce;" cognate with Pers. zâdan "to bring forth, give birth;" → generate.

Motor, loanword from Fr. moteur, from L. motor "mover," from movere "to move."

engineer
  مهندس   
mohandes (#)

Fr.: ingénieur   

A person who designs, constructs, or works with engines or machines.

M.E. engin(e)our, from O.Fr. engigneor, from L.L. ingeniare, → engine.

Mohandes, from Ar. muhandis "measurer," from Pers. andâzé, → measure.

engineering
  مهندسی   
mohandesi (#)

Fr.: ingénierie   

The action, work, or profession of an engineer.

engineer + → -ing.

English mounting
  برنشاند ِ انگلیسی   
barnešând-e englisi

Fr.: monture anglaise   

A method of mounting a telescope in which the polar axis is supported at each end by two piers. The great defect of this type of mounting is its inability to observe the pole.

mounting.

enhance
  بلندیدن   
bolandidan

Fr.: rehausser, accroître   

To raise to a higher degree; intensify; magnify (Dictionary.com).

M.E. enhauncen, from Anglo-Fr. enhauncer, from O.Fr. enhaucier "make higher, make greater; raise in esteem," from V.L. *inaltiare, from L.L. inaltare "raise, exalt," from altare "make high," from altus "high."

Bolandidan, from boland "high," related to bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz, "height, magnitude," → magnitude.

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