An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 674
exolife
  برونزیست   
borunzist

Fr.: vie extraterrestre   

extraterrestrial life.

exo-; → life.

ExoMars
  اگزو-مارس   
ExoMars

Fr.: ExoMars   

A → European Space Agency (ESA) program to investigate the Martian environment and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future Mars sample return mission in the 2020's. Two missions are foreseen: one consisting of an Orbiter plus an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), launched in 2016, and the other, featuring a rover, with a launch date of 2018. Both missions will be carried out in cooperation with Russia's Roscosmos space agency. The ExoMars program will demonstrate a number of essential flight and in-situ enabling technologies that are necessary for future exploration missions, such as an international Mars Sample Return mission. At the same time, a number of important scientific investigations will be carried out. The 2016 mission included a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDM. The Orbiter will carry scientific instruments to detect and study atmospheric trace gases, such as methane. The EDM will contain sensors to evaluate the lander's performance as it descends, and additional sensors to study the environment at the landing site. The 2018 mission includes a rover that will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research.

ExoMars, short for "→ exobiology on → Mars."

exomoon
  برونمانگ   
borunmâng

Fr.: exolune   

A natural → satellite orbiting an → extrasolar planet.

exo-; → moon.

exoplanet
  برون‌سیاره   
borun-sayyâreh

Fr.: exoplanète   

Same as → extrasolar planet.

exo- + → planet.

exoplanetary
  برون‌سیاره‌ای   
borun-sayyâre-yi

Fr.: exoplanétaire   

Of, relating to, or resembling an → exoplanet or exoplanets.

exoplanet; → -ary.

exoplanetary system
  راژمان ِ برون‌سیاره‌ای   
râſmân-e borun-sayyâre-yi

Fr.: système exoplanétaire   

A → planetary system consisting of → exoplanets orbiting a star other than Sun.

exoplanetary; → system.

exoplanetary transit
  گذر ِ برون‌سیاره‌ای   
gozar-e borun-sayyâre-yi

Fr.: transit d'exoplanète   

The passage of an → exoplanet across the face its star.

exoplanetary; → transit.

exosphere
  برون‌سپهر   
borun-sepehr

Fr.: exosphère   

1) The outermost portion of the Earth's → atmosphere. Extremely tenuous, it lies above the → ionosphere from a height of about 500 km, to the edge of → interplanetary space.
2) An extremely tenuous kind of atmosphere surrounding a → solar system body. Since the → mean free path is much greater than the atmospheric scale height. The → atoms or → molecules never collide with each other. → lunar exosphere.

exo- + → sphere.

exothermic
  گرمازا   
garmâzâ (#)

Fr.: exothermique   

Relating to or describing any process in which a system releases heat to its surrounding environment.

From → exo- + -therm, from Gk. therme "heat," from PIE *ghwerm-/*ghworm- "warm;" cf. Pers. garm "warm;" L. fornax "an oven;" O.E. wearm "warm" + → -ic.

From garmâ "heat, warmth" (Mid.Pers. garm; O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" Gk. thermos "warm;" L. formus "warm;" P.Gmc. *warmaz; O.E. wearm; O.H.G., Ger. warm; PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm-, as above) + verbal adj. and agent noun of zâdan "to bring foth, give birth," (Mid.Pers. zâtan; Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

exotic
  اسگانیک   
osgânik

Fr.: exotique   

1) Of foreign origin or character; not native; introduced from abroad, but not fully naturalized or acclimatized.
2) Strikingly unusual or strange in effect or appearance.
3) Of a uniquely new or experimental nature (Dictionary.com).
See: → exotic star.

M.E., from M.Fr. exotique and directly from L. exoticus, from Gk. exotikos "foreign," literally "from the outside," from → exo- "outside."

Osgânik, from os-, → ex-, + gân relation suffix, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, + -ik, → -ic.

exotic star
  ستاره‌ی ِ اسگانیک   
setâre-ye osgânik

Fr.: étoile exotique   

A hypothetical → compact object composed of particles other than electrons, protons, and neutrons balanced against → gravitational collapse by → degeneracy pressure of corresponding quantum properties.

exotic; → star.

expand
  ۱) سپانیدن؛ ۲) سپانیده شدن   
1) sopânidan; 2) sopânide šodan

Fr.: 1) dilater, agrandir, développer; 2) se dilater, s'agrandir, se développer   

1a) To change (something) from a smaller form and/or size to a larger one.
1b) To increase the extent, number, volume or scope of (something).
1c) To express (something) at length and/or in detail.
1d) Math.: To write (a mathematical expression) as a sum of terms in an extended form.
2) to increase or grow in extent, bulk, scope; to spread out; unfold; develop.
See also → spread, → extend, → dilate.

M.E. expanden, from O.Fr. espandre "to spread, spread out," from L. expandere "to spread out, unfold, expand," from → ex- "out" + pandere "to spread, stretch," from nasalized form of PIE root *pete- "to spread," a Pers. offshoot of which is pahn "wide, broad," as below. from

Sopândan, "to stretch, to extend, open out" from so- "out," → ex-, + pân, from pan, variant of pahn "wide, large, broad, ample, extensive," from Mid.Pers. pah(a)n; Av. paθana- "broad, wide, spacious;" PIE root *pete- "to spread;" cf. L. patere "to be open," Gk. petannynai "to spread out," petalon "a leaf."
Alternatively, Sopândan "to open up, to open out," from so- "out," → ex-, + pân "open," cf. Yaghnobi pen, peyn "to open, unroll," Sogd. pyn- "to open," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *apa- + *hHai- "to chain, bind," from which Pers. gošâdan "to open, release" (Cheung 2007).

Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA)
     
EVLA

Fr.: EVLA   

A → radio interferometer array consisting of 27 25-meter diameter antennas located on the Plains of San Agustin in West-Central New Mexico. EVLA will operate at any frequency between 1.0 and 50 GHz and will have a continuum sensitivity improvement over the → VLA by factors of 5 to 20.The EVLA project is expected to be completed in 2012. See also the EVLA homepage.

expand; → very; → large; → array.

expanding Universe
  گیتی ِ سپانا، ~ سپاننده   
giti-ye sopânâ, ~ sopânande

Fr.: Univers en expansion   

The deduction based on the observational fact that the greater the → distance to a → galaxy, the greater the → redshift in its → spectral lines (→ Doppler effect). The observations strongly indicate that galaxies appear to be moving away from us with speeds proportional to their distance. This is in agreement with the overall → expansion of the → Universe.

expand; → -ing; → Universe.

expansion
  سپانش   
sopâneš (#)

Fr.: expansion   

1) General: The act or process of expanding; the state or quality of being expanded. → expansion of the Universe.
2) Math.: The process of expressing a quantity, or a quantity expressed, as a sum of a series of terms. For example the expression (2x - 1)(x + 3) can be expanded to: 2x2 + 5x - 3. See also → binomial expansion.

Noun from → expand.

expansion of the Universe
  سپانش ِ گیتی   
sopâneš-e giti (#)

Fr.: expansion de l'Univers   

The receding of galaxies from one another at a speed proportional to their separation, as inferred by Edwin Hubble from the observed Doppler shift of distant galaxies. → Hubble constant describes the local rate of the expansion.

expansion; → universe.

expansion parameter
  پارامون ِ سپانش   
pârâmun-e sopâneš

Fr.: paramètre d'expansion   

A → scale factor that relates the size of the Universe R = R(t) at time t to the size of the Universe R0 = R(t0) at time t0 by R = aR0. The expansion parameter represents the history of expansion of the Universe.

expansion; → parameter.

expectation
  بیوسش   
bayuseš

Fr.: espérance, attente   

Statistics: Same as → mathematical expectation, → expected value.

From L. expectare "to await, hope," from → ex- "thoroughly" + spectare "to look," from → specere "to look at," → -scope.

Bayusesš, verbal noun of bayusidan "to expect;" Mid.Pers. pyws- "to hope for, desire" (prefixed *pati-); O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly," vašna- "will, favor;" Av. vas- "to will, desire, wish, long for," vasəmi "I wish," vasna- "will, favor," ušti- "desire, wish, will," vasô, vasə "at one's will." This word is extant in several Mod.Pers. dialects, Tabari vessen "to wish, desire," Gilaki vâssan "to wish, desire," vâsti "desire," Kurd. wistin "to desire, wish," Lâri avessa "to desire," colloquial Tehrâni vâsé "for" (Mid.Pers. vasnâd "because"); cf. Skt. vaś- "to wish, want, desire," váśa- "wish, desire," vasēna "for, because;" Gk. ekon "voluntary;" PIE base *uek- "to wish."

expected value
  ارزش ِ بیوسیده   
arzeš- bayusidé

Fr.: valeur espérée   

Statistics: Same as → mathematical expectation, → expectation.

expectation; → value.

expend
  هزینیدن   
hazinidan

Fr.: dépenser   

To use up. See also → spend, → consume.

From L. expendere "to pay out, weigh out money," from → ex- "out" + pendere "to pay, weigh."

Hazinidan, back formation from haziné, → expenditure.

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