An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 644
Encke gap
  گاف ِ انکه   
gâf-e Enke

Fr.: division de Encke   

A region of decreased brightness within the A ring of Saturn.

In honor of Johann Franz Encke, → Encke's comet. Gap, from O.N. gap "chasm," related to gapa "to gape."

Gâf, variant kâf "split, slit," stem of kâftan, kâvidan "to split; to dig," Mid./Mod.Pers. škâf- škâftan "to split, burst," Proto-Iranian *kap-, *kaf- "to split;" cf. Gk. skaptein "to dig;" L. scabere "to scratch, scrape," P.Gmc. *skabanan (Goth. skaban; Ger. schaben; E. shave). PIE base *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack."

Encke's comet
  دنباله دار ِ انکه   
donbâledâr-e Enké (#)

Fr.: comète de Encke   

A faint comet with the shortest known period (about 3.30 years). Its semimajor axis is 2.21 AU and aphelion 4.1 AU. it is the parent body of the Taurids meteor shower. The comet was first observed in 1786 by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain.

Named after the German astronomer Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865), who in 1819 computed its orbit and proved that sightings of apparently different comets in 1786, 1795, 1805, and 1818 were in fact appearances of the same comet. → comet.

encode
  رمزاندن، رمز‌گذاشتن   
ramzândan, ramz gozâštan

Fr.: codage   

To convert (data, information) into another format by → encoding. See also → decode and → encrypt.

From en- "in; into" + → code.

Ramzândan, infinitive from ramz, → code. Ramz gozâštan, from ramz + gozâštan "to place, put," → nomenclature.

encoder
  رمزانشگر   
ramzânešgar

Fr.: encodeur   

An electronic device or software program used to convert (a message, information, data) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.

encode; → -er.

encoding
  رمزانش، رمز‌گذاری   
ramzâneš, ramz gozâri

Fr.: coder   

A process used for transforming data into another format by means of a scheme that is publicly available so that it can easily be reversed. See also → decoding and → encryption.

encode; → -ing.

encounter
  رویارویی   
ruyâruyi (#)

Fr.: rencontre   

General: A meeting, especially one that is unplanned, unexpected, or brief. An often violent meeting; a clash.
Coming across of two bodies (as two stars in a cluster) which results in the deviation from original directions of motion. → close encounter; → strong encounter; → weak encounter.

From O.Fr. encountrer "confront," from encontre "against, counter to," from L.L. incontra "in front of," from L. in- "in" + contra "against."

Ruyâruyi "being face to face," from ru, ruy "face, countenance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face," Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + euphonic interfix -â- + ruy + noun suffix -i.

encrypt
  درنهاندن   
darnahândan

Fr.: crypter   

To convert (information or data) into a system of symbols, especially to prevent unauthorized access. See also → decrypt and → encode.

From en- "in; into" + L. crypt, from Gk. kryptos "hidden, concealed, secret" + → -tion.

Darnahândan, from dar-, → in- + nahândan "to hide, conceal," from nahân "concealed, hid; clandestine;" Mid.Pers. nihân "secrecy, a secret place, a hiding place," nihânik "concealed;" Av. niδāti- "deposing, deposit."

encryption
  درنهانش   
darnehâneš (#)

Fr.: cryptage   

A process that transforms data into another format in such a way that only specific individual(s) can reverse the transformation. Encryption is for maintaining data confidentiality. See also → decryption and → encoding.

encrypt; → -tion.

endo-
  درون-   
darun-

Fr.: endo-   

A combining form meaning "within, inside" used in the formation of compound terms such as → endomorphism and → endothermic.

From Fr., from Gk. endon "in, within, at home," from en "in" + -don, base of domos "house," → domain.

Darun "in, into, within;" Mid.Pers. andarôn "inside," from andar, → inter- + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river."

endoergic process
  فراروند ِ کاروژگیر   
farâravand-e kâružgir

Fr.: processus endoénergétique   

A nuclear or molecular process in which some of the energy of the incoming particle is absorbed by, or transferred to, the other particle.

endo- + -ergic, a combining form with the meanings "activated by, sensitive to, releasing, resembling the effect produced by the substance or phenomenon specified by the initial element," from → erg, → energy + → -ic; → process.

Farâravand, → process; kâružgir, from kâruž, → energy, + gir present stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

endomorphism
  درون-ریخت‌مندی   
darun-rixtmandi

Fr.: endomorphisme   

A → morphism from an → object to itself.

endo-; → morphism.

endothermic process
  فراروند ِ گرماگیر   
farâravand-e garmâgir (#)

Fr.: processus endothermique   

Process during which heat is absorbed by the system from outside.

endo- + -therm, from Gk. therme "heat," from PIE *ghwerm-/*ghworm- "warm;" cf. Pers. garm "warm," L. fornax "an oven," O.E. wearm "warm" + → -ic.

From garmâ "heat, warmth" (Mid.Pers. garm, O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm," cf. Skt. gharmah "heat," Gk. thermos "warm," L. formus "warm," P.Gmc. *warmaz, O.E. wearm, O.H.G., Ger. warm, PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm-, as above) + gir present tense stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

energetic
  ۱) کاروژمند؛ ۲) کاروژی   
1) kâružmand; 2) kâruži

Fr.: 1) de grande énergie, énergique; 2) énergétique   

1) Having a relatively high amount of energy.
2) Of or relating to energy.

energy + -t + → -ic.

energetic solar particles
  ذره‌های ِ خورشیدی ِ کاروژمند   
zarrehâ-ye xoršidi-ye kâružmand

Fr.: particules solaires énergétiques   

Electrons and atomic nuclei ejected by solar flares, travelling with velocities amounting to a fraction of the velocity of light, and energies mostly in the range 1-100 million → electronvolts (eV), but occasionally as high as 15 billion eVs. Also known as solar → cosmic rays.

Energetic, from Gk. energetikos, from energe-, → energy, + -tikos a suffix, equivalent in meaning to → -ic, occurring in adjectives; → solar; → particle.

Zarrehâ plural of zarré, → particle; xoršidi, → solar; kâružmand from kâruž, → energy, + -mand possession suffix.

energetics
  کاروژیک   
kâružik

Fr.: énergétique   

The total energy relations and transformations of energy within a particular physical, chemical, or biological system.

energy + -t + → -ics.

energy
  کاروژ   
kâruž

Fr.: énergie   

In physics, capacity for doing work.

From M.Fr. energie, from L.L. energia, from Gk. energeia "force in action, activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en- "in, at" + ergon "work," from PIE base *werg- "to work" (cf. Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue").

Kâruž, literally "work strength," from kâr + . The first component kâr "work," Mid.Pers kâr, Mod./Mid.Pers. kardan "to do, to work," Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make." The second component, , from Mid.Pers. ôž "strength" (ôžômand "strong"), Av. aogah-, aojah- "strength" (aojahvant- "strong") Skt. ojas- "strength" (ojasvant- "strong"); L. augustus "venerable," L.L. augmentare "to increase," from augere "to increase, enlarge, enrich;" Lith. augu "to grow;" Gk. auxo "increase;" Goth. aukan "to grow, increase;" O.E. eacien "to increase"); PIE *augos- "force," *aug- "to increase."

energy cascade
  پی‌شار ِ کاروژ   
peyšâr-e kâruž

Fr.: cascade d'énergie   

The → turbulent process whereby → kinetic energy is transformed into heat by the action of nonlinear coupling which transfers the energy from large eddies (→ eddy) to smaller and smaller eddies, finally arriving at → dissipative scales dominated by → viscosity (direct cascade). In the simplest case (3D homogeneous hydrodynamic turbulence), the resulting energy distribution is the → Kolmogorov spectrum. The reverse process also exists (inverse cascade) whereby energy is transferred to larger and larger eddies.

energy; → cascade.

energy density
  چگالی ِ کاروژ   
cagâli-ye kâruž

Fr.: densité d'énergie   

The amount of energy in the form of radiation per unit volume, expressed in ergs cm-3. In particular, the energy density of blackbody radiation at temperature T is aT4, where the radiation constant a = 7.56 × 10-15 erg cm-3 (K)-4.

energy; → density.

energy generation equation
  هموگش ِ آزانش ِ کاروژ   
hamugeš-e âzâneš-e kâruž

Fr.: équation de génération d'énergie   

Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the equation describing the → energy generation rate as a function of → density and → temperature.

energy; → generation; → equation.

energy generation rate
  نرخ ِ آزانش ِ کاروژ   
nerx-e âzâneš-e kâruž

Fr.: taux de génération d'énergie   

Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the energy produced per unit mass per unit time, usually denoted ε (erg g-1s-1). The general form of the energy generation equation is: ε = ε0ρλTν, where ε0, ρ, and λ are constants over some efficiently restricted range of → temperature T, → density ρ, and → chemical composition. The temperature exponent ν is about 4, 15, and 40 for → proton-proton chain, → CNO cycle, and → triple alpha process, respectively.

energy; → generation; → rate.

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