An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS)
     
CDS

Fr.: Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS)   

A data center dedicated to the collection and worldwide distribution of astronomical data and related information. It is located at the Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory, France. The CDS has several goals, mainly: collecting all of the useful information regarding astronomical objects in computerized form, including observational data produced by observatories on the ground or in space; upgrading these data by critical evaluations and comparisons; and distributing the results to the astronomical community. Currently the CDS services include: → SIMBAD, Aladin interactive sky atlas, and VizieR catalogues.

CDS, short for Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg.

stratification
  چینه‌بندی   
cine-bandi

Fr.: stratification   

A layered structure of sedimentary rocks in which the individual layers can be traced a considerable distance. The layers can be caused by many differences which include materials of different composition, color, grain size or orientation.

Strati-, from → stratum + -fication from L. -ficare "to do, make."

Ciné, → stratum + bandi, from bastan "to bind, shut; to contract, get, acquire; to coagulate," (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind, → band).

Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)
  نپاهشگاه ِ چینه‌سپهری برای اخترشناسی ِ فروسرخ   
Nepâhešgâh-e Cine-sepehri barây axtaršenâsi-ye forusorx

Fr.: Observatoire stratosphérique pour l'astronomie infrarouge   

A partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 m. NASA Ames Research Center manages SOFIA's science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association and the German SOFIA Institute. SOFIA is the largest airborne observatory in the world, with a planned 20-year lifetime.

stratospheric; → observatory; → infrared; → astronomy.

strong
  سترگ، زورمند، نیرومند   
sotorg, zurmand, nirumand (#)

Fr.: fort, puissant   

Having an intense, powerful, or vivid effect.
strong anthropic principle, → strong arm spiral galaxy, → strong encounter, → strong force, → strong gravitational lensing, → strong interaction, → strong lensing.

O.E. strang "physically powerful, powerful in effect, forceful;" cf. O.N. strangr "strong," Du. streng "strict, rigorous," O.H.G. strang "strong, bold, hard," Ger. streng "strict, rigorous."

Sotorg "large, strong," Mid.Pers. sturg "fierce; gross, coarse," Av. stūra- "strong, large, rough," stāuuišta- "strongest, biggest," cf. Skt. sthūrá- "strong, big, massy, thick," Gk. stylos "column, pillar," M.L.G. stūr "big, strong, coarse."
Zurmand, from zur, → strength, + -mand possession suffix.
Nirumand, from niru, → force + -mand possession suffix.

strong anthropic principle
  پروز ِ انسان-هستی ِ سترگ   
parvaz-e ensân-hasti-ye sotorg

Fr.: principe anthropique fort   

A version of the → anthropic principle that claims that the → Universe must be suitable for the formation of → intelligent life at some point. Compared with the → weak anthropic principle, this version is very controversial. Its implications are highly speculative from a scientific viewpoint.

strong; → anthropic; → principle.

strong arm spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ با بازوی ِ سترگ   
kahkešân-e mârpic bâ bâzu-ye setorg

Fr.: galaxie spirale à forts bras   

A galaxy with prominent stellar → spiral arms and little star formation between stellar arms, such as M51.

strong; → arm; → spiral; → galaxy.

strong encounter
  رویارویی ِ سترگ   
ruyâruyi-ye sotorg

Fr.: rencontre proche   

In a star cluster, a → close encounter that strongly changes a star's velocity.

strong; → encounter.

strong force
  نیروی ِ سترگ   
niru-ye sotorg

Fr.: interaction forte   

The force responsible for holding quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles. It is the strongest of the four fundamental forces. Same as → strong interaction.

strong; → force.

strong gravitational lensing
  لنزش ِ گرانشی ِ سترگ   
lenzeš-e gerâneši-ye sotorg

Fr.: effet de lentille gravitationnelle forte   

A → gravitational lensing phenomenon in which the image distortion is strong enough to be readily recognized, such as in the case of the → Einstein cross or when giant luminous arcs show up in → galaxy clusters (e.g. Abell 2218). Opposite to → weak gravitational lensing.

strong; → gravitational; → lensing.

strong interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ سترگ   
andaržireš-e sotorg

Fr.: interaction forte   

The interaction between quarks that is transmitted by gluons. The characteristic range of the strong interaction is 10-13 cm, and the time scale over which it operates is on the order of 10-23 second. Also called → strong force.

strong; → interaction.

strong lensing
  لنزش ِ سترگ   
lenzeš-e sotorg

Fr.: effet de lentille fort   

A situation where the mass concentration in the central regions of → galaxy clusters exceeds the → critical density required for lensing, resulting in multiple images of background objects.

strong; → lensing.

strontium
  استرونسیوم   
estonsiom (#)

Fr.: strontium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Sr. Atomic number 38; atomic weight 87.62; melting point 769°C; boiling point 1,384°C; specific gravity 2.6 at 20°C. Strontium is a soft, silver-yellow metal with three allotropic crystalline forms. It is found in nature only in the combined state, as in strontianite. It is used in fireworks, flares, and tracer bullets. The radioactive isotope Strontium-87, the daughter of Rubidium-87, has a half-life of 48.8 x 109 years.

The name derives from Strontian "a town in Scotland." The mineral strontianite is found in mines in Strontian. The element was discovered by the Scottish chemist and physician Thomas Charles Hope in 1792 observing the brilliant red flame color of strontium. It was first isolated by the English chemist Humphry Davy in 1808.

structure formation
  دیسش ِ ساختار   
diseš-e sâxtâr

Fr.: formation des structures   

The study of the processes that gave rise to the apparition of matter concentrations, such as → superclusters of galaxies, → galaxy clusters, and galaxies, in a homogeneous → expanding Universe. Cosmic structures are believed to result from → density fluctuations that existed in the → early Universe before radiation and matter decoupled (→ decoupling era or → recombination era). Initial → quantum fluctuations in the → inflaton field were expanded by → inflation. Inflation amplified them up to scales that correspond to those of galaxy clusters and beyond. Generally, a model of structure formation includes three main ingredients: 1) background cosmology, 2) model for fluctuation generation, and 3) types of → dark matter.
See also:
bottom-up structure formation, → hierarchical structure formation, → Silk damping, → top-down structure formation.

structure; → formation.

sub-arcsecond
  زیر-ثانیه‌ای   
zir-sâniye-yi

Fr.:   

A measure of angle smaller than 1 arcsecond, usually until 0.1 arcsecond.

sub-; → arc second.

sub-arcsecond imaging
  تصویرگری ِ زیر-ثانیه‌ای   
tasvir-gari-ye zir-sâniye-yi

Fr.:   

Imaging in excellent seeing conditions using an adequate detector to obtain stellar images whose profile lies in the sub-arcsecond range.

sub-arcsecond; → imaging.

subduction
  زیر-هازش   
zir-hâzeš

Fr.: subduction   

Geology: The process by which one tectonic plate slides down and below another tectonic plate as the two converge. The subduction zone is the zone of convergence of two tectonic plates, one of which usually overrides the other.

From L. subductionem (nominative subductio), from subductus, p.p. of subducere "to draw away, withdraw, remove," from → sub- + ducere "to lead."

Zir-hâzeš, verbal noun of zir-hâzidan, from zir-sub- + hâzidan, hâxtan, from Mid.Pers. "to lead, guide, persuade;" Av. hak-, hacaiti "to attach oneself to, to join;" cf. Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows;" Gk. hepesthai "to follow,"; L. sequi "to follow;" PIE *sekw-.

sublimation
  والایش   
vâlâyeš

Fr.: sublimation   

The process whereby a substance goes from a solid directly to a gaseous form.

From M.L. sublimationem (nominative sublimatio) "refinement," literally "a lifting up, deliverance," from L. sublimare "to raise, elevate," from sublimis "lofty."

Vâlâyeš, verbal noun from vâlâ "sublime, majestic," may be a variant of bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," variants boland "high," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Lori dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."

submillimeter astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ زیر-میلیمتری   
axtaršenâsi-ye zir-milimetri

Fr.: astronomie sub-millimétrique   

The study of astronomical objects with → submillimeter waves. As with millimeter-wave astronomy, this part of the spectrum is rich in lines emitted by interstellar molecules and dust.

submillimeter; → astronomy.

submillimeter radiation
  تابش ِ زیر-میلیمتری   
tâbeš-e zir-milimetri

Fr.: rayonnement sub-millimétrique   

That part of the → electromagnetic radiation with a → wavelength beyond 300 → microns.

submillimeter; → radiation.

submission
  درسپرد   
dar-sepord

Fr.: soumission   

An act or instance of submitting. The condition of having submitted. → submit

Verbal noun of → submit.

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