# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 Newtonian cosmology   کیهان‌شناسی ِ نیوتنی   keyhânšenâsi-ye NewtoniFr.: cosmologie newtonienne   The use of → Newtonian mechanics to derive homogeneous and isotropic solutions of → Einstein's field equations, which represent models of expanding Universe. The Newtonian cosmology deviates from the prediction of → general relativity in the general case of anisotropic and inhomogeneous models.→ Newtonian; → cosmology. Newtonian fluid   شاره‌ی ِ نیوتنی   šârre-ye NewtoniFr.: fluide newtonien   Any → fluid with a constant → viscosity at a given temperature regardless of the rate of → shear.→ Newtonian; → fluid. Newtonian focus   کانون ِ نیوتن، ~ نیوتنی   kânun-e Newton, ~ NewtoniFr.: foyer de Newton   The focus obtained by diverting the converging light beam of a reflecting telescope to the side of the tube.→ Newtonian; → focus. Newtonian limit   حد ِ نیوتنی   hadd-e NewtoniFr.: limite newtonienne   The limit attained by → general relativity when velocities are very smaller than the → speed of light or gravitational fields are weak. This limit corresponds to the transition between general relativity and the → Newtonian mechanics. See also → Newtonian approximation.→ Newtonian; → limit. Newtonian mechanics   مکانیک ِ نیوتنی   mekânik-e Newtoni (#)Fr.: mécanique newtonienne   A system of mechanics based on → Newton's law of gravitation and its derivatives. Same as → classical mechanics.→ Newtonian; → mechanics. Newtonian potential   توند ِ نیوتنی   tavand-e NewtoniFr.: potentiel newtonien   A potential in a field of force obeying the inverse-square law such as → gravitational potential.→ Newtonian; → potential. Newtonian principle of relativity   پروز ِ بازانیگی ِ نیوتن   parvaz-e bâzânigi-ye NewtonFr.: principe de relativité de Newton   The Newton's equations of motion, if they hold in any → reference frame, they are valid also in any other reference frame moving with uniform velocity relative to the first.→ Newtonian; → principle; → relativity. Newtonian relativity   بازانیگی ِ نیوتنی   bâzânigi-ye NewtoniFr.: relativité newtonienne   The laws of physics are unchanged under → Galilean transformation. This implies that no mechanical experiment can detect any intrinsic diff between two → inertial frames. Same as → Galilean relativity.→ Newton; → relativity. Newtonian telescope   دوربین ِ نیوتن، تلسکوپ ِ ~   durbin-e Newton, teleskop-e ~Fr.: télescope de Newton, ~ newtonien   A telescope with a concave paraboloidal objective mirror and a small plane mirror that reflects rays from the primary mirror laterally outside the tube where the image is viewed with an eyepiece.→ Newtonian; → telescope. nodal regression   پسرفت ِ گرهی   pasraft-e gerehiFr.: regression nodale   For a ring inclined to the planet's equator, the points at which the ring crosses the equator (nodes) slowly move around the planet (regress) in a direction opposite to that of the ring's orbital motion. (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).→ nodal; → regression. nodical month   ماه ِ گرهی، ~ گوزهری   mâh-e gerehi (#), ~ gowzahri (#)Fr.: mois draconitique   The time interval between two successive passages of the Moon through its ascending node (27.212220 days, i.e., 27 days 5 hours 5 minutes 35.8 seconds). Nodical month is important for predicting eclipses. Also called → draconic month.Nodical adj. of → node; → month.Mâh, → month; gerehi, adj. of gereh, → node; gowzahri→ draconic month. nomination   نامنش   nâmenešFr.: nomination   An act or instance of nominating, especially to office. The state of being nominated (Dictionary.com).Verbal noun of → nominate. non-   نا-   nâ- (#)Fr.: non-   A prefix meaning "not."From O.Fr. non-, from L. non "not," from Old L. noenum "not one;" in some cases perhaps from M.E. non "not" (adj.), from O.E. nan.Nâ- "no, not," variants na, ni, ma- (prohibitive) "not;" from Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. ná "not;" cf. L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. nè; O.C.S. ne "not;" PIE *ne-. non-algebraic function   کریای ِ ناجبری   karyâ-ye nâjabriFr.: fonction non algébrique   A → transcendental function. Examples are: exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.→ non-; → algebraic + → function. non-baryonic dark matter   ماده‌ی ِ سیاه ِ ناباریونی   mâde-ye siyâh-e nâbâriyoniFr.: matière noire non-baryonique   → Dark matter composed of → non-baryonic particles.→ non-; → baryonic; → dark; → matter. non-baryonic matter   مادّه‌ی ِ ناباریونی   mâdde-ye nâbâriyoni (#)Fr.: matière non-baryonique   Matter that, unlike the ordinary matter, is not made of baryons (including the neutrons and protons). It is proposed as a possible constituent of dark matter.→ non-; → baryonic matter. non-coherent radiation   تابش ِ ناهمدوس   tâbeš-e nâhamdus (#)Fr.: rayonnement incohrént   Radiation having waves that are out of phase in space and/or time; radiation which is not → coherent.→ non-; → coherent; → radiation. non-contingent   نا-آمرسان   nâ-âmarsânFr.: non contingent   Describing a → proposition that is either → true in every possible circumstance or → false in every possible circumstance. A proposition that is not → contingent.→ non-; → contingent. non-dispersive medium   مدیم ِ ناپاشنده   madim-e nâpâšandéFr.: milieu non dispersif   A medium in which the → phase velocity is independent of frequency.→ non-; → dispersive; → medium. non-Euclidean geometry   هندسه‌ی ِ نا-اقلیدوسی   hendese-ye nâ-oqlidosi (#)Fr.: géométrie non-euclidienne   Any of several geometries which do not follow the postulates and results of Euclidean geometry. For example, in a non-Euclidean geometry through a point several lines can be drawn parallel to another line. Or, the sum of the interior angles of a triangle differs from 180 degrees. According to Einstein's general relativity theory, gravity distorts space into a non-Euclidean geometry.