An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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precipitation
  ۱) بارش، ریزش؛ ۲) ته‌نشست   
1) bâreš (#), rizeš (#); 2) tahnešast (#)

Fr.: précipitation   

1) Meteo.: Any form of water, such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail, that falls to the Earth's surface. The quantity of such water falling in a specific area within a specific period.
2) Chemistry: The process of separating a solid substance from a solution.

From M.Fr. précipitation, from L. præcipitationem "act or fact of falling headlong, haste," from præcipitare "fall, be hasty," from præceps "steep, headlong, headfirst," from præ- "forth" + caput, → head.

1) Bâreš, verbal noun of bâridan "to rain," bârân "rain;" Mid.Pers. vâritan, vârân; Av. vār- "rain; to rain;" cf. Skt. vār- "rain, water; to rain;" PIE base *uer- "water, rain, river."
Rizeš, verbal noun of rixtan "to flow, to pour," → overflow.
2) Tahnešast "to settle down, precipitate," from tah "→ bottom, end;" + nešast past stem of nešastan "to sit down; to settle down; to sink," → sit.

precision
  پرسونش   
parsuneš

Fr.: précision   

1) The state or quality of being → precise.
2) The degree to which repeated measurements of a quantity give the same results under unchanged conditions. Not the same as → accuracy, but often confused as such. See → accuracy for the difference between precision and accuracy.

Verbal noun from → precise.

predation
  چَوِش   
caveš

Fr.: prédation   

1) Act of plundering or robbing; predatory behavior.
2) The preying of one animal on others.

Verbal noun, → prey.

prehension
  نوتش   
nuteš

Fr.: préhension   

1) Zoology Psychology: The action of grasping or seizing.
2) Philosophy: An interaction of a subject with an event or entity which involves perception but not necessarily cognition (Oxford Dictionary, lexico.com).

Verbal noun of → prehend.

preon
  پرءون   
preon

Fr.: préon   

In → particle physics, any of postulated "point-like" particles from which are composed → quarks and → leptons. In other words, preon models assume there is a more fundamental kind of particle than those so far known. Different preon models consider different numbers and different natures of the preons.

Coined by Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam in 1974, from → pre- + → -on.

preposition
  پیشهل   
pišhel

Fr.: préposition   

A word used with a noun or pronoun to mark its relation with another word.

From L. praepositionem "a putting before," from praepositus, p.p. of praeponere "put before," from prae "before," → pre-, + ponere "put, set, place," → position.

Pišhel, from piš-, "before," → pre-, + hel-, helidan, heštan "to place, put," → leap.

prescription
  پیش‌وشت   
pišvešt

Fr.: prescription, ordonnance   

1) An act of prescribing.
2) A direction, usually written, by the physician to the pharmacist for the preparation and use of a medicine or remedy. The medicine prescribed (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → prescribe; → -tion.

present-day mass function (PDMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ کنونی، ~ ~ امروزی   
karyâ-ye jerm-e konuni, ~ ~ emruzi

Fr.: fonction de masse actuelle   

The present number of stars on the → main sequence per unit logarithmic mass interval per square parsec. The PDMF is the basis for deriving the → initial mass function (IMF). This mass function is not corrected for stellar evolution nor losses through stellar deaths.

present; → day; → mass; → function.

pressure ionization
  یونش ِ فشاری   
yoneš-e fešâri

Fr.: ionisation par pression   

A physical state of dense matter in which the electrostatic field of one atom should influence a neighboring atom and hence disturb atomic levels. In extreme case, such as white dwarfs, electron clouds practically rub and electrons are ionized off the parent atoms.

pressure; → ionization.

primordial curvature perturbation
  پرتورش ِ خمیدگی ِ بن‌آغازین   
partureš-e xamidegi-ye bonâqâzin

Fr.: perturbation de courbure primordiale   

In cosmological models, the phenomenon that is supposed to seed the → cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the structure formation of the Universe.

primordial; → curvature; → perturbation.

principle of action and reaction
  پَروز ِ ژیرش و واژیرش، ~ کنش و واکنش   
parvaz-e žireš va vâžireš, ~ koneš va vâkoneš

Fr.: principe d'action et de réaction   

Newton's third law of motion, which states that for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction.

principle; → action; → reaction.

principle of constancy
  پروز ِ پایایی ِ تندی ِ نور   
parvaz-e pâyâyi tondi-ye nur

Fr.: principe de la constance de la vitesse de la lumière   

The second postulate in Einstein's theory of → special relativity whereby the → velocity of light in → vacuum has the same absolute value in all → inertial reference frames irrespective of the direction and speed of propagation of the light source. It should be emphasized that this constancy of the speed of light holds among → reference frames moving uniformly with respect to each other. An observer accelerated with respect to a light source will measure a speed of light that is smaller than the speed of light measured in a → rest frame. See also → principle of relativity.

principle; constancy, noun related to → constant.

principle of least action
  پَروز ِ کمترین ژیرش، ~ ~ کنش   
parvaz-e kamtarin žireš, ~ ~ koneš

Fr.: principe de moindre action   

The principle that, for a system whose total mechanical energy is conserved, the path to be taken for the system from one configuration to another is the one whose action has the least value relative to all other possible paths and from the same configurations. Also called Maupertuis' principle, least-action principle.

principle; → least; → action.

principle of non-contradiction
  پروز ِ ناپادگویی   
parvaz-e nâpâdguyi

Fr.: principe de non-contradiction   

The third principle of → formal logic introduced in Aristotle's theory of the → syllogism: No statement can be both → true and → false at the same time. Also called → law of non-contradiction.

principle; → non-; → contradiction.

printer font
  ریختار ِ چاپگر   
rixtâr-e câpgar

Fr.: fonte d'imprimante   

A font used for printing. See also → screen font.

printer; → font.

privatization
  واونش   
vâvaneš

Fr.: privatisation   

The transfer from public to private ownership.

private; → -tion.

probability density function
  کریای ِ چگالی ِ شوانایی   
karyâ-ye cagâli-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: fonction de densité de probabilité   

A mathematical function whose integral over any interval gives the probability that a continuous → random variable has values in this interval. Also known as → density function, frequency function, → probability function.

probability; → density; → function.

probability distribution
  واباژش ِ شوانایی   
vâbâžeš-e šavânâyi

Fr.: distribution de probabilité   

The function that describes the range of possible values that a random variable can attain and the probability that the value of the random variable is within any (measurable) subset of that range.

probability; → distribution.

probability function
  کریای ِ شوانایی   
karyâ-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: fonction de probabilité   

A function that represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. Also called probability density function or density function.

probability; → function.

procession
  فراروش   
faârraveš

Fr.: procession   

The act of moving along or proceeding in orderly succession or in a formal and ceremonious manner, as a line of people, animals, vehicles, etc (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun from → process.

<< < "no abe acc act aff ama ani ant aps ast atm aut bar bif Boh bou cal car Cen chi Cla col com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con cor cor Cou cur dec def Den det dif dim dis dis dou E-t edi ele ell ene ero exa exp ext fer Fla fra FU Gam geo gra gra had har hig Hub Hyp imp ind inf ins int int ion iro ite Kep lar lep lin lon lun mag mas mer mig mol Moo mut neg new New non non non nuc obs on- opt Ori oxi par per per phl pho Pla ple pol pos pre Pro pro pub qua rad rad rec red reg rem res rev rot Sak Sco sec seg sha sim sol sou sph sta ste Str sub sup T a the Tho tra tre tum uni vel vis wav wor > >>