An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 3079 Search : on
collection
  گرد‌آورش، گرد‌آورد، گرد‌آمد، گرد‌آیند   
gerdâvareš, gerdâvard, gerdâmad, gerdâyand (#)

Fr.: collection   

1) The act or process of collecting.
2) A group of objects or works to be seen, studied, or kept together.

Verbal noun from → collect.

collective star formation
  دیسش ِ گرد‌آمدی ِ ستارگان   
diseš-e gerdâmdi-ye setâregân

Fr.: formation collective d'étolies   

Formation of stars, especially → massive stars, in group as opposed to individual formation.

collective; → star; → formation.

collectivization
  گرد‌آمدش، گرد‌آمدکرد   
gerâmadideš, gerâdmad-kard

Fr.: collectivisation   

The process of forming collectives or collective communities where property and resources are owned by the community and not individuals (TheFreeDictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → collectivize.

collimation
  همراستایش   
hamrâstâyeš

Fr.: collimation   

1) The process of restricting a beam of photons or particles to a given area.
2) The process of adjusting a telescope to place all optical elements in precise alignment. → align a telescope.

Verbal noun of → collimate.

collision
  همکوبش   
hamkubeš

Fr.: collision   

The act or process of colliding, → collide.

Verbal noun from → collide .

collisional
  همکوبشی   
hamkubeši

Fr.: collisionnel   

Of or relating to → collision.

collision; → -al.

collisional cross section
  سکنج ِ اسکرمند ِ همکوبشی   
sekanj-e oskarmand-e hamkubeši

Fr.: section efficace de collision   

Same as → cross section.

collisional; → cross; → section.

collisional decay
  تباهی ِ همکوبشی   
tabâhi-ye hamkuneši

Fr.: désexcitation collisionnelle   

The process when the energy difference between the excited and non excited states of an atom is taken away by an electron during a collision.

collisional; → decay.

collisional excitation
  بر‌انگیزش ِ همکوبشی   
barangizeš-e hamkubeši

Fr.: excitation collisionnelle   

A physical process which is caused by the free electrons that are energized either by → photoionization or → collisional ionization. Collisional excitation puts ions, atoms, and molecules into excited states from which they may decay radiatively. Collisional excitation is important in the → interstellar medium.

collisional; → excitation.

collisional heating
  گرمش ِ همکوبشی   
garmeš-e hamkubeši

Fr.: chauffage par collisions   

A physical process whereby heat is imparted to (e.g. → interstellar dust grains or → molecular hydrogen) through collisions (with hot electrons, ions, etc.).

collisional; → heating.

collisional ionization
  یونش ِ همکوبشی   
yoneš-e hamkubeši

Fr.: ionisation collisionnelle   

An → ionization resulting from a → collision.

collisional; → ionization.

collisional plasma
  پلاسمای ِ همکوبشی   
pelâsmâ-ye hamkubeši

Fr.: plasma collisionnel   

A plasma in which the → mean free path of the → charged particles between two → collisions is much smaller than the size of the system containing the plasma.

collisional; → plasma.

collisionless damping
  میرایی ِ بی‌همکوبش   
mirâyi-ye bihamkubeš

Fr.: amortissement sans collision   

Same as the → Landau damping.

collision; → -less; → damping.

color transformation
  ترادیس ِ رنگ   
tarâdis-e rang

Fr.: transformation de couleur   

Empirical mathematical transformation applied to the observed magnitudes in order to convert them into a standard system, or into a different system.

color; → transformation.

com-, col-, con-, cor-, co-
  هم-، هن-، ها-، هَ-   
ham- (#), han- (#), hâ- (#), ha- (#)

Fr.: com-, col-, con-, cor-, co-   

Prefix denoting "together; with; joint; jointly". It is sometimes used for intensification as in complete, complain, convince.

M.E., from O.L., classical L. form cum "together, together with," Gk. koinos "common," from PIE *kom- "beside, near, by, with."

Ham- and ham "together, with; same, equally, even," Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-, sa-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. hąm- (nasal a) appears in various forms: ham-, han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also həm-, hən-, ha- (Bartholomae, 1772). Variants in Pers. ha- as in (Anâraki) ha-bend, → connect, and (Kurd.) hasûn "to whet, sharpen," and hâ- as in hâ-dâdan, hâ-gereftan, see Dehxodâ.

combination
  میازش   
miyâzeš

Fr.: combinaison   

1) General: The act of combining or the state of being combined.
2) Math: The number of ways elements making up a set can be arranged into various groups without regard to their order in the group. → permutation

Noun from → combine

combustion
  سوزش   
suzeš

Fr.: combustion   

1) Any chemical reaction in which a substance (fuel) combines with oxygen to produce heat and often light. Combustion reactions usually involve a complex sequence of free-radical chain reactions. The light is produced by excited atoms, molecules, or ions.
2) → nuclear combustion.

M.E., from O.Fr. combustion, from L. combustionem (nominative combustio) "a burning," noun of action from p.p. stem of comburere "to burn," from → com-, intensive prefix + urere "to burn."

Suzeš, → burning

comet designation
  نامگزینی ِ دنباله‌دار   
nâmgozini-ye donbâledâr

Fr.: désignation des comètes   

A → nomenclature system for naming → comets. In early 1995, a new comet designation system was established by the → International Astronomical Union. The main rules are as follows:
a) If the comet is a newly discovered one, it first gets a provisional name, which closely matches the → asteroid designation system. For example, the first comet discovered in the first half of 1998 January is designated 1998 A1, the second 1998 A2, etc.
b) The name of the person(s) who discovered the comet may be added to this designation (limited, however, to three names). For example, comet → Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) has its full name as Hale-Bopp C/1995 O1, whereas its designation is C/1998 O1. If several people are involved with a discovery at an observatory, the comet may be named after the observatory instead of the individuals.
c) → Long-period comets and one-apparition → periodic comets receive only a provisional designation.
d) A → short-period comet would get the P/designation until it is recovered in a second → apparition. At this point, the P/Year designation would be replaced with a number followed immediately by an upper case P, and a slash followed by the name of the discoverer(s). The number here is one more than the number of known periodic comets that have reappeared. For example, the comet Hug-Bell (P/1999 X1) was given the full name 178P/Hug-Bell after it reappeared in 2007. Previously, 177 periodic comets had got assigned numbers.
e) Long-period comets are indicated by the prefix C.
f) If the comet is destroyed, or if it fails to appear after several apparitions, it would be prefixed D/ (→ defunct comet) followed by the year of its discovery. For example, → Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 has been assigned D/1993 F2 since it was discovered in the second half of March in 1993 and was destroyed when it crashed into Jupiter in 1994.
g) Comets that lack sufficient position measurements for an orbital determination are given the designation of X/ followed by the year of their discovery and the appropriate letter and number code.
h) When a → comet nucleus nucleus splits, each fragment is given the comet designation followed by A, B, C, etc (for fragments).

comet; → designation.

commissioning
  راه اندازش   
râhandâzeš

Fr.: rodage   

Putting a telescope or an observing instrument into active service after their final construction.

From L. commissionem "delegation of business," from commissus, p.p. of committere "to bring together," from → com- "together" + mittere "to put, send."

Râhandâzeš, verbal noun from compound verb râhandâxtan "to set in work; to prepare," from râh "way, path" + andâxtan "to cast; to make, do; to throw."

commissioning period
  دوره‌ی ِ راه اندازش   
dowre-ye râhandâzeš

Fr.: période de rodage   

A period during which a newly constructed observing instrument is used for test.

commissioning; → period.

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