An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 3079 Search : on
diffraction
  پراش   
parâš (#)

Fr.: diffraction   

A wave property of light which allows it to curl around obstacles whose size is about that of the wavelength of the light. As a → wavefront of light passes by an opaque edge or through an opening, secondary weaker wavefronts are generated, apparently originating at that edge. These secondary wavefronts will interfere with the primary wavefront as well as with each other to form a → diffraction pattern.
Related terms: → diffusion; → dispersion; → distribution; → scatter; → scattering.

From Fr. diffraction, from Mod.L. diffractionem, from L. diffrac-, stem of diffringere "break in pieces," from → dis- "apart" + frangere "to break."

Parâš "dispersion, scattering," variant of pâš, pâšidan, → dispersion.

diffraction grating
  توری ِ پراش   
turi-ye parâš (#)

Fr.: réseau de diffraction   

An optical device containing thousands of very fine parallel grooves which produce interference patterns in a way which separates out all the components of the light into a spectrum.

diffraction; → grating.

diffraction pattern
  الگوی ِ پراش   
olgu-ye parâš (#)

Fr.: tache de diffraction   

A series of concentric rings of dark and light color produced by interference.

diffraction; → pattern.

Olgu, loanword from Turkish; parâšdiffraction.

diffraction spike
  سیخک ِ پراش   
sixak-e parâš

Fr.: aigrette de diffraction   

One of several light rays emanating from a bright light source in images taken with → reflecting telescopes. They are artifacts caused by light diffracting around the support or → spider vanes of the → secondary mirror.

diffraction; → spike.

diffraction-limited
  کران‌مند به پراش   
karânmand bé parâš

Fr.: limité par la diffraction   

The quality of an → optical system that is capable of producing images with angular resolution as small as the theoretical limit of the → Airy disk.

diffraction; limited, adj. of → limit.

Karânmand "bounded, limited," from karânboundary + -mand possession suffix; parâš diffraction.

diffuse reflection
  بازتاب ِ پخشیده   
bâztâb-e paxšidé

Fr.: réflexion diffuse   

Reflection of light from a rough or granular surface, which takes place in all directions due to the microscopic irregularities of the interface; opposed to → specular reflection.

diffuse; → reflection.

diffuse transmission
  تراگسیل ِ پخشیده   
tarâgosil-e paxšidé

Fr.: transmission diffuse   

Transmission accompanied by diffusion or scatter to the extent that there is no regular or direct transmission.

diffuse; → transmission.

diffusion
  پخش   
paxš (#)

Fr.: diffusion   

1) Movement of a gas or liquid as a result of the random thermal motion of its atoms or molecules.
2) The random spreading out of a beam of radiation on reflection (→ diffuse reflection) or transmission through a translucent medium (such as amber, milk, or frosted glass).
3) In chemical thermodynamics, the process of attaining an equilibrium distribution of the → concentration within the phases. A result of diffusion at constant equilibrium is the equalization of the → chemical potentials.
Related terms: → diffraction; → dispersion; → distribution; → scatter; → scattering.

L. diffusionem, from stem of diffundere "scatter, pour out," from dif- "apart, in every direction," → dis-, + fundere "to melt, cast, pour out," from PIE *gheud-, from root *gheu- "to pour."

Paxš, verbal noun and stem of paxšidandiffuse.

diffusion coefficient
  همگر ِ پخش   
hamgar-e paxš

Fr.: coefficient de diffusion   

A factor of proportionality involved in the → diffusion equation. It may be defined as the amount of the quantity diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time. → magnetic diffusivity.

diffusion; → coefficient.

diffusion equation
  هموگش ِ پخش   
hamugeš-e paxš

Fr.: équation de diffusion   

An equation that expresses the time rate of change of a quantity in terms of the product of the diffusion coefficient and the → Laplacian operating on the quantity. For example the diffusion equation for temperature is: ∂T/∂t = D2T.

diffusion; → equation.

diffusion region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ پخش   
nâhiye-ye paxš

Fr.: région de diffusion   

A narrow boundary layer above the solar → photosphere, between two magnetic field lines, where the plasma becomes demagnetized or unfrozen. The presence of a localized magnetic region is necessary for → magnetic reconnection.

local; → -ize; → diffusion; → region.

dihedron
  دودیمه   
dodimé

Fr.: dièdre   

A figure formed by two intersecting planes.

di-; → -hedron.

dilation
  فراخش   
farâxeš (#)

Fr.: dilatation   

The act of dilating; state of being dilated. Also dilatation.
Physics: The increase in volume per unit volume of a homogeneous substance. → time dilation.

Verbal noun of → dilate.

dilution
  اوتالش   
owtâleš

Fr.: dilution   

The process of reducing the concentration of solute in a solution by increasing the proportion of solvent.

Verbal noun of → dilute.

dilution factor
  کروند ِ اوتالش   
karvand-e owtâleš

Fr.: facteur de dilution   

The energy density of a radiation field divided by the equilibrium value for the same color temperature.

dilution; → factor.

dimension
  وامون   
vâmun

Fr.: dimension   

1) Math.: Independent extension in a given direction; a property of space.
2) Physics: → physical dimension.

From L. dimensionem (nom. dimensio), from stem of dimetri "to measure out," from → dis- + metri "to measure."

Vâmun, from vâ-, → dis-, + mun, variant mân "measure" (as in Pers. terms pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl"), from O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum.

dimensional
  وامونی   
vâmuni

Fr.: dimensionnel   

Of or pertaining to → dimension.

dimension; → -al.

dimensional analysis
  آنالس ِ وامونی، آناکاوی ِ ~   
ânâlas-e vâmuni, ânâkâvi-ye ~

Fr.: analyse dimensionnelle   

A technique used in physics based on the fact that the various terms in a physical equation must have identical → dimensional formulae if the equation is to be true for all consistent systems of unit. Its main uses are:
a) To test the probable correctness of an equation between physical quantities.
b) To provide a safe method of changing the units in a physical quantity.
c) To solve partially a physical probable whose direct solution cannot be achieved by normal methods.

dimensional; → analysis.

dimensional formula
  دیسول ِ وامونی   
disul-e vâmuni

Fr.: formule dimensionnelle   

Symbolic representation of the definition of a physical quantity obtained from its units of measurement. For example, with M = mass, L = length, T = time, area = L2, velocity = LT-1, energy = ML2T-2. → dimensional analysis.

dimensional; → formula.

dimensionless
  بی‌وامون   
bivâmun

Fr.: sans dimension   

A physical quantity or number lacking units.

dimension; → -less.

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