# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 differential equation with separable variables   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای با ورتنده‌های ِ جدایی-پذیر   hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vartandehhâ-ye jodâyi-pazirFr.: équation différentielle à variables séparables   A → differential equation of the form: M1(x) N1(y) dx + M2(x) N2(y) dy = 0, which can be reduced to a → differential equation with separated variables. → differential; → equation; → separate; → variable. differential equation with separated variables   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای با ورتنده‌های ِ جدا   hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vartandehhâ-ye jodâFr.: équation différentielle à variables séparées   A → differentail equation that can be transformed into the form: M(x)dx + N(x)dy = 0. → differential; → equation; → separate; → variable. differential image motion monitor (DIMM)   پهره‌گر ِ جنبش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ وینه، ~ ~ ~ تصویر   pahregar-e jonbeš-e degarsâneyi-ye vine, ~ ~ ~ tasvirFr.: moniteur de mouvements d'images différentiels, moniteur seeing   A device that is commonly used to measure the → seeing at optical astronomical sites. The DIMM delivers an estimate of the → Fried parameter based on measuring the variance of the differential image motion in two small apertures, usually cut out in a single larger telescope pupil by a mask. The DIMM concept was introduced by Stock & Keller (1960, in Stars and Stellar Systems, Vol. 1, ed. G. P. Kuiper & B. M. Middlehurst, p. 138), whereas its modern implementation was first described by Sarazin & Roddier (1990, A&A 227, 294).→ differential; → image; → motion; → monitor. differential refraction   شکست ِ دگرسانه‌ای   šekast-e dagarsâneyiFr.: refraction différentielle   A problem encountered in astronomical spectroscopy, which consists of a loss of light from some wavelengths due to → atmospheric dispersion. In simple terms, differential refraction means that at nonzero → zenith distances an object cannot be simultaneously placed at the same position within a → slit at all wavelengths. This problem becomes more important for increasing → airmass, larger → spectral range, and smaller → slitwidths. To remedy this drawback, the slit should always be oriented along a direction perpendicular to the horizon, since differential refraction occurs in that direction. differential rotation   چرخش ِ دگرسانه‌ای   carxeš-e degarsâneyiFr.: rotation différentielle   1) Of a single body (such as a star or a gaseous planet), the axial rotation of equatorial latitudes faster than polar latitudes. 2) Of a galaxy, the orbiting of stars nearer the center faster than those at the edge.→ differential; → rotation. differentiation   دگرسانش   degarsânešFr.: (Math.) dériver; (Astro.) différenciation   1) Math.: The operation of finding the → derivative of a function. 2) Astro.: Process by which an originally homogeneous planetary or asteroidal body is separated into regions of different composition, such as core, mantle, and crust.Verbal noun of → differentiate. diffraction   پراش   parâš (#)Fr.: diffraction   A wave property of light which allows it to curl around obstacles whose size is about that of the wavelength of the light. As a → wavefront of light passes by an opaque edge or through an opening, secondary weaker wavefronts are generated, apparently originating at that edge. These secondary wavefronts will interfere with the primary wavefront as well as with each other to form a → diffraction pattern. Related terms: → diffusion; → dispersion; → distribution; → scatter; → scattering.From Fr. diffraction, from Mod.L. diffractionem, from L. diffrac-, stem of diffringere "break in pieces," from → dis- "apart" + frangere "to break."Parâš "dispersion, scattering," variant of pâš, pâšidan, → dispersion. diffraction grating   توری ِ پراش   turi-ye parâš (#)Fr.: réseau de diffraction   An optical device containing thousands of very fine parallel grooves which produce interference patterns in a way which separates out all the components of the light into a spectrum.→ diffraction; → grating. diffraction pattern   الگوی ِ پراش   olgu-ye parâš (#)Fr.: tache de diffraction   A series of concentric rings of dark and light color produced by interference.→ diffraction; → pattern.Olgu, loanword from Turkish; parâš→ diffraction. diffraction spike   سیخک ِ پراش   sixak-e parâšFr.: aigrette de diffraction   One of several light rays emanating from a bright light source in images taken with → reflecting telescopes. They are artifacts caused by light diffracting around the support or → spider vanes of the → secondary mirror.→ diffraction; → spike. diffraction-limited   کران‌مند به پراش   karânmand bé parâšFr.: limité par la diffraction   The quality of an → optical system that is capable of producing images with angular resolution as small as the theoretical limit of the → Airy disk.→ diffraction; limited, adj. of → limit.Karânmand "bounded, limited," from karân→ boundary + -mand possession suffix; parâš→ diffraction. diffuse reflection   بازتاب ِ پخشیده   bâztâb-e paxšidéFr.: réflexion diffuse   Reflection of light from a rough or granular surface, which takes place in all directions due to the microscopic irregularities of the interface; opposed to → specular reflection.→ diffuse; → reflection. diffuse transmission   تراگسیل ِ پخشیده   tarâgosil-e paxšidéFr.: transmission diffuse   Transmission accompanied by diffusion or scatter to the extent that there is no regular or direct transmission.→ diffuse; → transmission. diffusion   پخش   paxš (#)Fr.: diffusion   1) Movement of a gas or liquid as a result of the random thermal motion of its atoms or molecules. 2) The random spreading out of a beam of radiation on reflection (→ diffuse reflection) or transmission through a translucent medium (such as amber, milk, or frosted glass). 3) In chemical thermodynamics, the process of attaining an equilibrium distribution of the → concentration within the phases. A result of diffusion at constant equilibrium is the equalization of the → chemical potentials. Related terms: → diffraction; → dispersion; → distribution; → scatter; → scattering.L. diffusionem, from stem of diffundere "scatter, pour out," from dif- "apart, in every direction," → dis-, + fundere "to melt, cast, pour out," from PIE *gheud-, from root *gheu- "to pour."Paxš, verbal noun and stem of paxšidan→ diffuse. diffusion coefficient   همگر ِ پخش   hamgar-e paxšFr.: coefficient de diffusion   A factor of proportionality involved in the → diffusion equation. It may be defined as the amount of the quantity diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time. → magnetic diffusivity.→ diffusion; → coefficient. diffusion equation   هموگش ِ پخش   hamugeš-e paxšFr.: équation de diffusion   An equation that expresses the time rate of change of a quantity in terms of the product of the diffusion coefficient and the → Laplacian operating on the quantity. For example the diffusion equation for temperature is: ∂T/∂t = D∇2T.→ diffusion; → equation. diffusion region   ناحیه‌ی ِ پخش   nâhiye-ye paxšFr.: région de diffusion   A narrow boundary layer above the solar → photosphere, between two magnetic field lines, where the plasma becomes demagnetized or unfrozen. The presence of a localized magnetic region is necessary for → magnetic reconnection.→ local; → -ize; → diffusion; → region. dihedron   دودیمه   dodiméFr.: dièdre   A figure formed by two intersecting planes.→ di-; → -hedron. dilation   فراخش   farâxeš (#)Fr.: dilatation   The act of dilating; state of being dilated. Also dilatation. Physics: The increase in volume per unit volume of a homogeneous substance. → time dilation.Verbal noun of → dilate. dilution   اوتالش   owtâlešFr.: dilution   The process of reducing the concentration of solute in a solution by increasing the proportion of solvent.Verbal noun of → dilute.