# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 noncollisional plasma   پلاسمای ِ نا-همکوبشی   pelâsmâ-ye nâ-hamkubešiFr.: plasma non-collisionnel:   A plasma in which the → mean free path of the charged particles between two collisions is much larger than the size of the system containing the plasma.→ non-; → collisional; → plasma. nondimensional equation   هموگش ِ ناوامونی   hamugeš-e nâvâmuniFr.: équation non-dimensionnelle   An equation that is independent of the units of measurement as it only involves nondimensional numbers, parameters, and variables.→ non-; → dimensional; → equation. nonempty   ناتهی   nâtohi (#)Fr.: non vide   Describing something that is partially or totally occupied.→ non; → empty. nonempty set   هنگرد ِ ناتهی   hangard-e nâtohiFr.: ensemble non vide   A set containing at least → one → element.→ nonempty; → set. nonexistence   ناهستومندی، ناهستی   nâhastumandi, nâhastiFr.: non existence   Math.: The fact that no → solution exists for a given → problem. In mathematics, nonexistence usually is a matter of impossibility.→ non-; → existence. nonfuzzy   ناپرزوار   nâporzvârFr.: non flou   Not → fuzzy. → nonfuzzy set.→ non-; → fuzzy. nonfuzzy set   هنگرد ِ ناپرزوار   hangard-e nâporzvârFr.: ensemble non flou   A set that obeys the rules of → classical logic, a → crisp set, as contrasted with a → fuzzy set.→ nonfuzzy; → set. nonholonomic system   راژمان ِ ناهروداتیک   râžemân-e nâharudâtikFr.: système non holonomique   A mechanical system with constraints on their velocity that are not derivable from position constraints. Nonholonomic systems arise, for instance, in mechanical systems that have rolling contact (for example, the rolling of wheels without slipping) or certain kinds of sliding contact (such as the sliding of skates). They are a remarkable generalization of classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems in which one allows position constraints only.→ non-; → holonomic; → system. nonhomogeneous   ناهمگن   nâhamgen (#)Fr.: non homogène   Not homogeneous. → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation.→ non-; → homogeneous. nonhomogeneous linear differential equation   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی ناهمگن   hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti nâhamgenFr.: équation différentielle linéaire non homogène   A → linear differential equation if Q(x)≠ 0 on interval I.→ nonhomogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation. nonionized   نایونیده   nâyonidé (#)Fr.: non-ionisé   The quality of an atom that has neither lost nor gained any electrons.→ non-; → ionized. nonlinear   ناخطی   nâxatti (#)Fr.: non-linéaire   Not a linear function of the relevant variables. Containing a variable with an exponent other than one; opposite of → linear.→ non-; → linear. nonlinear device   دستگاه ِ ناخطی   dastgâh-e nâxattiFr.: dispositif non-linéaire   An electronic device whose output is not directly proportional to its input. For example, in a → diode the current is a nonlinear function of the voltage; its voltage-current characteristics do not obey → Ohm's law.→ nonlinear; → device. nonlinear dynamics   توانیک ِ ناخطی   tavânik-e nâxattiFr.: dynamique non-linéaire   Same as → chaos.→ nonlinear; → dynamics. nonlinear instability   ناپایداری ِ ناخطی   nâpâydâri-ye nâxattiFr.: instabilité non-linéaire   The instability of a physical or mathematical system that arises from the nonlinear nature of relevant variables and their interactions within the system.→ nonlinear; → instability. nonlinear system   راژمان ِ ناخطی   râžmân-e nâxattiFr.: système non-linéaire   A system in which small changes can result in large effects, and large changes in small effects.→ nonlinear; → system. nonlinearity   ناخطیگی   nâxattigiFr.: non-linéarité   The property, condition, or state of being → nonlinear.→ non-; → linearity. nonrising star   ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پنهان   setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#)Fr.:   A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole.Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star.Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden." nonsense   جفنگ   jafang (#)Fr.: non sense   Word or language having no meaning. → absurd.→ non- + → sense.Jafang "nonsense, futile." nonsetting star   ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پیدا   setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#)Fr.:   A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star.Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star.Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible.