An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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nonrising star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پنهان   
setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#)

Fr.:   

A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole.

Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star.

Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden."

nonsense
  جفنگ   
jafang (#)

Fr.: non sense   

Word or language having no meaning. → absurd.

non- + → sense.

Jafang "nonsense, futile."

nonsetting star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پیدا   
setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#)

Fr.:   

A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star.

Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star.

Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible.

nonsingular matrix
  ماتریس ِ ناتکین   
mâtris-e nâtakin

Fr.: matrice non singulière   

A → square matrix that is not a → singular matrix.

non-; → singular; → matrix.

nonviscous
  ناوشکسان   
nâvošksân

Fr.: non visqueux   

Fluid mechanics: Having no → viscosity. Same as → inviscid.

From → non- + → viscous.

noon
  نیمروز   
nimruz (#)

Fr.: midi   

The time of day when the Sun crosses the observer's meridian and is at its highest point above the horizon. At this point, the Sun lies due south of an observer in the northern hemisphere and due north of an observer in the southern hemisphere.

M.E. none; O.E. non, from L. nona hora "ninth hour" of daylight by Roman reckoning, about 3 p.m.

Nimruz, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Sk. néma- "half") + ruzday.

normal dispersion
  پاشش ِ هنجارمند   
pâšeš-e hanjârmand

Fr.: dispersion normale   

The dispersion in which a shorter wavelength is associated with a higher → refractive index. Contrasted with the → anomalous dispersion.

normal; → dispersion.

normal distribution
  واباژش ِ هنجارور   
vâbâžeš-e hanjârvar

Fr.: distribution normale   

A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean. Same as → Gaussian distribution.

normal; → distribution.

normalization
  هنجارورش   
hanjârvareš

Fr.: normalisation   

1) A mathematical technique for adjusting a series of values (typically representing a set of measurements) according to some transformation function in order to make them comparable with some specific point of reference.
2) Process of introducing a numerical factor into an equation so that the area under the corresponding graph (if finite) shall be made equal to unity.
3) To change in scale so that the sum of squares or the integral of squares of the transformed quantity is zero.

Verbal noun of → normalize.

notation
  نمادگان   
namâdgân (#)

Fr.: notation   

Representation of numbers, quantities, or other entities by symbols; a system of symbols for such a purpose.

From L. notationem (nom. notatio) "a marking, explanation," from notatus, p.p. of notare "to note."

Namâdgân, from namâd, → symbol, + -gân suffix denoting order, organization, multiplicity.

notion
  پنداره   
pendâré (#)

Fr.: notion   

A general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something.

From L. notio "concept, conception, idea," from noscere "to know," → knowledge.

Pendâré, noun from pendâštan "to imagine, consider, think," → imaginary number.

nuclear combustion
  سوزش ِ هسته‌ای   
suzeš-e haste-yi

Fr.: combustion nucléaire   

nuclear burning.

nuclear; → combustion.

nuclear cross-section
  سکنج‌گاه ِ هسته‌ای   
sekanjgâh-e hasteyi

Fr.: section efficace nucléaire   

Apparent cross-section possessed by an atomic nucleus when it undergoes a particular type of collision process.

nuclear; → cross section.

nuclear fission
  شکافت ِ هسته‌ای   
šekâft-e haste-yi (#)

Fr.: fission nucléaire   

A → nuclear reaction in which a heavy atomic nucleus splits into two or more approximately equal parts, usually as the result of the capture of a slow, or → thermal neutron by the nucleus. It is normally accompanied by the emission of further neutrons or → gamma rays and very large amounts of energy. The neutrons can continue the process as a → chain reaction, so that it becomes the source of energy in a → nuclear reactor or an atomic bomb. It may also be a trigger for → nuclear fusion in a hydrogen bomb. Fission occurs spontaneously in nuclei of uranium-235, the main fuel used in nuclear reactors.

nuclear; → fission.

nuclear fusion
  ایوش ِ هسته‌ای   
iveš-e haste-yi

Fr.: fusion nucléaire   

A → nuclear reaction between atomic nuclei as a result of which a heavier → atomic nucleus is formed, a small fraction of mass is lost, and a large quantity of energy is released. Nuclear fusion is the source of the energy of stars.

nuclear; → fusion.

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
  باز‌آوایی ِ مغناتیسی ِ هسته‌ای   
bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi-ye haste-yi

Fr.: résonance magnétique nucléaire   

An analysis technique applied to some atomic nuclei that have the property to behave as small magnets and respond to the application of a magnetic field by absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation. When nuclei which have a magnetic moment (such as 1H, 13C, 29Si, or 31P) are submitted to a constant magnetic field and at the same time to a radio-frequency alternating magnetic field, the nuclear magnetic moment is excited to higher energy states if the alternating field has the specific resonance frequency. This technique is especially used in spectroscopic studies of molecular structure and in particular provides valuable information in medicine that can be used to deduce the structure of organic compounds.

nuclear; → magnetic; → resonance.

nuclear reaction
  واژیرش ِ هسته‌ای   
vâžireš-e haste-yi

Fr.: réaction nucléaire   

A process in which the energy, composition, or structure of an atomic nucleus changes.

nuclear; → reaction.

nuclear transition
  گذرش ِ هسته‌ای   
gozareš-e haste-yi

Fr.: transition   

A change in the → energy level or state of an atomic → nucleus involving a → quantum of energy.

nuclear; → transition.

nuclear transmutation
  تراموتش ِ هسته‌ای   
tarâmuteš-e haste-yi

Fr.: transmutation nucléaire   

The changing of atoms of one element into those of another by suitable nuclear reactions.

nuclear; → transmutation.

nucleon
  هستون   
haston

Fr.: nucléon   

A constituent of the atomic nucleus, i.e. a proton or a neutron.

From nucle(us), → nucleus, + -on a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles, probably extracted from → ion.

Haston, from hast(é)nucleus + -on, as above.

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