An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 3079 Search : on
convex mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ کاو   
Âyene-ye kâv (#)

Fr.: miroir convexe   

A → spherical mirror with a reflecting surface curved outward, that is toward the object.

convex; → mirror.

convexo-concave lens
  عدسی ِ کوژ-کاو   
adasi-ye kuž-kâv

Fr.: lentille convexo-concave   

A diverging lens having one surface convex and the opposite surface concave.

convex; → concave; → lens.

convince
  پروخیدن   
paruxidan

Fr.: convaincre   

To move by argument or evidence to belief, agreement, consent, or a course of action (Dictionary.com).

From L. convincere "to overcome decisively," from the intensive prefix → com- + vincere "to conquer, overcome, defeat," from PIE root *weik- "to fight, conquer."

Paruxidan, from Parthian Mid.Pers. prywx- "to conquer, overcome," from prefix pari- + yux "yoke;" Av. yuj- "to harness, yoke," variants yuj, juh, jut, jot; Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke;" Pers. (+*pari-) piruz, pêrôz "victorious," → yoke.

convincing
  پروخنده   
paruxandé

Fr.: convaincant   

Capable of causing someone to believe that something is true or real (OxfordDictionaries.com).

convince; → -ing.

convocation
  هم-وچ، هموچ   
hamvac

Fr.: convocation   

The act of convoking. The state of being convoked.

Verbal noun of → convoke.

convoke
  هم-وچیدن، هموچیدن   
hamvacidan

Fr.: convoquer   

To call together; summon to meet or assemble (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. convoquer, from L. convocare "to call together," from → con- "together," + vocare "to call," from vox, → voice.

Hamvacidan, from ham-, → com-, + vac "word," → voice, + -idan infinitive suffix.

convolution
  هماگیش   
hamâgiš

Fr.: convolution   

1) A mathematical combination of two functions which involves multiplying the value of one function at a given point with the value of another function, the weighting function, for a displacement from that point and then integrating over all such displacements. The process is repeated for every point of the function. Convolution expresses how the shape of a function is altered by the other. In mathematical terms, the convolution of two functions f(x) and g(x) is defined by: f*g = ∫f(u)g(x - u) du, integral from -∞ to +∞.
2) Astro.: Convolution describes how an instrument, through its transfer function, affects an input signal. → deconvolution.

Verbal noun of → convolve.

convolution theorem
  فربین ِ هماگیش   
farbin-e hamâgiš

Fr.: théorème de convolution   

A theorem stating that the → Fourier transform of the convolution of f(x) and g(x) is equal to the product of the Fourier transform of f(x) and g(x): F{f*g} = F{f}.F{g}.

convolution; → theorem.

convolve
  هماگیشیدن   
hamâgišidan

Fr.: convoluer   

1) To roll or wind together.
2) To bring about a → convolution.

From L. convolvere "to roll together," from → com- "together" + volvere "to roll, turn," PIE base *wel- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. valati "he turns," ulba- "womb, vulva," Gk. eilyein "to roll, wrap, fold."

Hamâgiš, from ham- "together", → com-, + âgišidan "to entwine, to twist" (Dehxodâ), from Mid.Pers. gyš- "to bind, tie," hangyš- "to fasten to;" cf. Sogd. patigyš- "to imprison, confine;" Proto-Ir. *kaš- "to imprison" (Cheung 2007).

coordination
  هم‌آرایش   
hamârâyeš

Fr.: coordination   

The act or state of coordinating or of being coordinated.

Verbal noun of → coordinate.

coordination compound
  همنات ِ هم‌آرایش   
hamnât-e hamârâyeš

Fr.: composé de coordination   

A chemical compound in which a group of atoms or ions are attached by a coordination bond to a usually metallic central atom or ion.

coordination; → compound.

coordination lattice
  جاره‌ی ِ هم‌آرایش   
jâre-ye hamârâyeš

Fr.: réseau de coordination   

Crystallography: The crystal structure of a → coordination compound.

coordination; → lattice.

coordination number
  شمار ِ هم‌آرایش   
šomêr-e hamârâyeš

Fr.: nombre de coordination   

1) Crystallography: The number of nearest neighbors of an atom or ion in a → crystal lattice. A large coordination number indicates that the structure is more closely packed.
2) Chemistry: The number of atoms, ions, or molecules surrounding a central atom or ion in a complex.

coordination; → number.

Copenhagen Interpretation
  آزند ِ کوپنهاگ   
âzand-e Kopenhâg

Fr.: interprétation de Copenhague   

A general heading which covers a wide variety of complex views on → quantum theory. As the first and the founding interpretation of the → quantum mechanics, it was developed in the late 1920's mainly by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, but also Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and other physicists who made important contributions to the overall understanding of this field. Bohr expressed himself on the subject at various meetings and later published several articles and comments, but he never wrote a systematic and complete version of his views. There is not a unique Copenhagen Interpretation but various more or less complete versions, the common denominator of which is mainly the work of Bohr. Among those opposed to the Copenhagen Interpretation have been Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Louis de Broglie, Max Planck, David Bohm, Alfred Landé, Karl Popper, and Bertrand Russell. The Copenhagen Interpretation recognizes that the deterministic picture of the universe that works so well at the macroscopic level does not work for the world at the quantum level. The universe at the quantum level is predictable only in a statistical sense. This implies that we can never really know the nature of quantum phenomena. The four cornerstones of the Copenhagen Interpretation are: → wave-particle duality, the probability → wave function, the → uncertainty principle, and the significance of the → observer. The observer is of the utmost importance because he causes the reality to unfold in the way it does. The key feature of the Copenhagen Interpretation is a concept known as the → collapse of the wave function, for which there is no known physical explanation; see also → Schrodinger's cat.

Copenhagen, from Dan. København "merchant's port," from køber "merchant" ("buyer") + havn "port," from the fact that the originator and chief interpreter of this school was Niels Bohr whose headquarters was in Copenhagen; → interpretation.

core mass function (CMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ مغزه   
karyâ-ye jerm-e maqzé

Fr.: fonction de masse des cœurs   

The mass distribution of → pre-stellar cores in → star-forming regions. The CMF is usually represented by dN/dM = Mα, where dM is the mass interval, dN the number of cores in that interval, and α takes different values in different mass ranges. In the case of → low-mass stars, it is found that the CMF resembles the → Salpeter function, although deriving the masses and radii of pre-stellar cores is not straightforward. The observational similarity between the CMF and the → initial mass function (IMF) was first put forth by Motte et al. (1988, A&A, 336, 150), and since then many other samples of dense cores have been presented in this context. For example, Nutter & Ward-Thompson (2007, MNRAS 374, 1413), using SCUBA archive data of the Orion star-forming regions, showed that the CMF can be fitted to a three-part → power law consistent with the form of the stellar IMF. Recent results, obtained using observations by the → Herschel Satellite, confirm the similarity between the CMF and IMF with better statistics (Könyves et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L106; André et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L102). Moreover, these works show that the CMF has a → lognormal distribution (i.e. dN/dlog M follows a → Gaussian form against log M), as is the case for the IMF at low masses (below about 1 solar mass).

core; → mass; → function.

Coriolis acceleration
  شتاب ِ کوریولیس   
šetâb-e Coriolis (#)

Fr.: accélération de Coriolis   

The apparent acceleration corresponding to the → Coriolis force. It is the acceleration which, when added to the acceleration of an object relative to a rotating → reference frame and to its → centrifugal acceleration, gives the acceleration of the object relative to a fixed reference frame. Coriolis acceleration equals 2ω x v, where ω is the → angular velocity of the rotating reference frame and v is the radial velocity of a particle relative to the center of the rotating reference frame.

Coriolis effect; → force.

corona
  تاج، هورتاج   
tâj, hurtâj (#)

Fr.: couronne   

1) The outermost atmosphere of the Sun immediately above the → chromosphere, which can be seen during a total Solar eclipse. It consists of hot (1-2 × 106 K), extremely tenuous gas (about 10-16 g cm-3) extending for millions of kilometer from the Sun's surface.
2) Meteorology: A set of one or more colored rings of small radii, concentrically surrounding the disk of the Sun, Moon, or other luminary when veiled by a thin cloud.

L. corona "crown, garland," cf. Gk. korone "anything curved, kind of crown."

Tâj "crown," loanword in Arm. tag "crown," tagavor "king," Proto-Iranian *tâgâ-, maybe from PIE base *(s)teg- "to cover" (L. toga "a garment worn by male citizens in ancient Rome;" hurtâj, from hur, → sun, + tâj.

Corona Australis
  تاج ِ دشتری، ~ جنوبی   
tâj-e daštari, ~ jonubi

Fr.: Couronne australe   

The Southern Crown. A small, faint southern → constellation, also called Corona Austrini. Abbreviation: CrA, genitive: Coronae Australis.

corona; L. australis "southern."

Corona Borealis
  تاج ِ هودری، ~ شمالی   
tâj-e hudari, ~ šomâli

Fr.: Couronne boréale   

The Northern Crown. A small but prominent northern → constellation that lies east of → Arcturus, between → Boötes and → Hercules, and comprises a distinctive arc formed by the stars seven stars. Abbreviation: CrB; genitive: Coronae Borealis.

corona; L. borealis "northern."

coronagraph
  تاجنگار، هورتاجنگار   
tâjnegâr (#), hurtâjnegâr (#)

Fr.: coronographe   

An instrument which, when used in a telescope, produces an artificial eclipse, permitting the study of the → solar corona without a total eclipse of the Sun. It was invented in 1930 by the French astronomer Bernard Lyot (1897-1952).

From → corona + → -graph.

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