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hadron hâdron (#) Fr.: hadron Any elementary particle which experiences the strong nuclear force. There are two sorts of hadrons: mesons, which have zero spin, and baryons, which have spin 1/2 or 3/2. Hadron, from Gk. hadr(os) "thick, bulky" + -on a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles (gluon, meson, neutron), quanta (photon, graviton), and other minimal entities or components (magneton). |
hadron era dowrân-e hâdroni Fr.: ère hadronique The interval lasting until some 10^{-5} seconds after the Big Bang when the Universe was dominated by radiation and its temperature was around 10^{15} kelvins. It is preceded by → Planck era and followed by → lepton era. |
hadronic hâdroni (#) Fr.: hadronique Of or related to → hadrons. |
hadronic matter mâde-ye hâdroni (#) Fr.: matière hadronique Ordinary matter composed of → hadrons. |
halation hâlegiri Fr.: halo 1) In a cathode-ray tube, the glow surrounding a bright spot that
appears on the fluorescent screen as the result of the screen's light
being reflected by the front and rear surfaces of the tube's
face. Halation, from hal(o), → halo + -ation a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate. Hâlegiri, from hâlé, → halo + giri, verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize"). |
half moon nime mâng, nime mâh (#) Fr.: demi-lune The moon when, at either quadrature, half its disk is illuminated. |
halo occupation distribution (HOD) vâbâžeš-e hageš-e hâlé Fr.: distribution d'occupation de halo The → probability distribution of the → number of galaxies that a host → dark matter halo of a given mass contains. HOD is a powerful theoretical frame to populate dark matter halos with luminous galaxies. More specifically, it describes the bias between galaxies and dark matter by specifying (a) the probability P(N|M) that a halo of → virial mass M contains N galaxies of a particular class and (b) the relative spatial and velocity distributions of galaxies and dark matter within halos. → halo; → occupation; → distribution. |
halo population porineš-e hâlé Fr.: population du halo Old stars with very low metallicities (→ metallicity) found in the → halo of the Galaxy. Also called → population II star. → halo; → population. |
Hamilton's equation hamugeš-e Hamilton Fr.: équation de Hamilton One of a set of equations that describe the motion of a → dynamical system in terms of the → Hamiltonian function and the → generalized coordinates. For a → holonomic system with n degrees of freedom, Hamilton's equations are expressed by: q^{.}_{i} = ∂H/∂p_{i} and p^{.}_{i} = - ∂H/∂q_{i}, i = 1, ..., n. → Hamiltonian function; → equation. |
Hamilton's principle parvaz-e Hamilton Fr.: principe de Hamilton Of all the possible paths along which a → dynamical system can move from one configuration to another within a specified time interval (consistent with any constraints), the actual path followed is that which minimizes the time integral of the → Lagrangian function. Hamilton's principle is often mathematically expressed as δ∫Ldt = 0, where L is the Lagrangian function, the integral summed from t_{1} to t_{2}, and δ denotes the virtual operator of Lagrangian dynamics and the → calculus of variations. |
Hamiltonian dynamics tavânik-e Hamilton Fr.: dynamique hamiltonienne The study of → dynamical systems in terms of the → Hamilton's equations. → Hamiltonian function; → dynamics. |
Hamiltonian formalism disegerâyi-ye Hamilton Fr.: formalisme de Hamilton A reformulation of classical mechanics that predicts the same outcomes as classical mechanics. → Hamiltonian dynamics. → Hamiltonian; → mechanics. |
Hamiltonian function karyâ-ye Hâmilton Fr.: fonction de Hamilton A function that describes the motion of a → dynamical system in terms of the → Lagrangian function, → generalized coordinates, → generalized momenta, and time. For a → holonomic system having n degrees of freedom, the Hamiltonian function is of the form: H = Σp_{i}q^{.}_{i} - L(q_{i},q^{.}_{i},t) (summed from i = 1 to n), where L is the Lagrangian function. If L does not depend explicitly on time, the system is said to be → conservative and H is the total energy of the system. The Hamiltonian function plays a major role in the study of mechanical systems. Also called → Hamiltonian. Introduced in 1835 by the Irish mathematician and physicist William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865); → function. |
Hamiltonian operator âpârgar-e Hamilton Fr.: opérateur hamiltonien The dynamical operator in → quantum mechanics that corresponds to the → Hamiltonian function in classical mechanics. → Hamiltonian function; → operator. |
harmonic hamâhang (#) Fr.: harmonique (adj.) Of, pertaining to, or noting a series of oscillations in
which each oscillation has a frequency that is an integral multiple of the same basic
frequency. From L. harmonicus, from Gk. harmonikos "harmonic, musical," from harmonia "agreement, concord of sounds," related to harmos "joint," arariskein "to join together;" PIE base *ar- "to fit together." Hamâhang, "harmonious, concordant," from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-; Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-) + âhang "melody, pitch, tune; harmony, concord," from Proto-Iranian *āhang-, from prefix ā- + *hang-, from PIE base *seng^{w}h- "to sing, make an incantation;" cf. O.H.G. singan; Ger. singen; Goth. siggwan; Swed. sjunga; O.E. singan "to chant, sing, tell in song;" maybe cognate with Gk. omphe "voice; oracle." |
harmonic mean miyângin-e hamâhang Fr.: moyenne harmonique A number whose reciprocal is the → arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of a set of numbers. Denoted by H, it may be written in the discrete case for n quantities x_{1}, ..., x_{n}, as: 1/H = (1/n) Σ(1/x_{i}), summing from i = 1 to n. For example, the harmonic mean between 3 and 4 is 24/7 (reciprocal of 3: 1/3, reciprocal of 4: 1/4, arithmetic mean between them 7/24). The harmonic mean applies more accurately to certain situations involving rates. For example, if a car travels a certain distance at a speed speed 60 km/h and then the same distance again at a speed 40 km/h, then its average speed is the harmonic mean of 48 km/h, and its total travel time is the same as if it had traveled the whole distance at that average speed. However, if the car travels for a certain amount of time at a speed v and then the same amount of time at a speed u, then its average speed is the arithmetic mean of v and u, which in the above example is 50 km/h. |
harmonic motion jonbeš-e hamâhang (#) Fr.: mouvement harmonique A motion that repeats itself in equal intervals of time (also called periodic motion). |
harmonic oscillator navešgar-e hamâhang (#) Fr.: oscillateur harmonique Any oscillating particle in harmonic motion. → harmonic; → oscillator. |
harmonic progression farâyâzi-ye hamâhang Fr.: progression harmonique Math.: Any ordered set of numbers, the reciprocals of which have a constant difference between them. For example 1, ½, 1/3, ¼, ..., 1/n. Also called → harmonic sequence. → harmonic; progression. |
harmonic sequence peyâye-ye hamâhang Fr.: suite harmonique |
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