An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 new moon   نومانگ، مانگ ِ نو   nowmâng (#), mâng-e now (#)Fr.: nouvelle lune   The Moon's phase when it is at the same celestial longitude as the Sun and thus totally un-illuminated as seen from Earth.→ new; → moon. newton   نیوتن   newton (#)Fr.: newton   The unit of force in the SI system of units. 1 newton (N) is defined as the force required to give a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 m s-2. 1 N = 105  → dynes.Named after Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the English highly prominent physicist and mathematician. Newton constant   پایای ِ نیوتن   pâyâ-ye NewtonFr.: constante de Newton   Same as the → gravitational constant.→ Newton; → constant. Newton's color wheel   چرخ ِ رنگ ِ نیوتن   carx-e rang-e NewtonFr.: disque de Newton   The arrangement of the seven colors of the rainbow on a disk. When the disk rotates very fast, the eye cannot distinguish between individual colors and the disk is perceived as white. This apparatus demonstrates the discovery made by Newton (Opticks, 1704) that light is composed of seven colors.→ Newton; → color; → wheel. Newton's constant   پایای ِ نیوتون   pâyâ-ye NewtonFr.: constante de Newton   Same as the → gravitational constant.→ Newton; → constant. Newton's cradle   گهواره‌ی ِ نیوتون   gahvâre-ye NewtonFr.: pendule de Newton   A device consisting of a series of equal → pendulums in a row used to demonstrate the laws of → conservation of momentum and → conservation of energy.→ Newton; → cradle. Newton's disk   گرده‌ی ِ نیوتن   gerde-ye NewtonFr.: disque de Newton   → Newton; → disk. Newton's equation   هموگش ِ نیوتن   hamugeš-e NewtonFr.: équation de Newton   In → geometric optics, an expression relating the → focal lengths of an → optical system (f and f') and the object x and image x' distances measured from the respective focal points. Thus, ff' = xx'. Same as Newton's formula.→ Newton; → equation. Newton's first law of motion   نخستین قانون ِ نیوتنی ِ جنبش   naxostin qânun-e Newtoni-ye jonbeš (#)Fr.: première loi newtonienne de mouvement   A body continues in its state of constant velocity (which may be zero) unless it is acted upon by an external force.→ Newton; → first; → law; → motion. Newton's law of cooling   قانون ِ سردش ِ نیوتن   qânun-e sardeš-e NewtonFr.: loi de refroidissement de Newton   An approximate empirical relation between the rate of → heat transfer to or from an object and the temperature difference between the object and its surrounding environment. When the temperature difference is not too large: dT/dt = -k(T - Ts), where T is the temperature of the object, Ts is that of its surroundings, t is time, and k is a constant, different for different bodies.→ Newton; → law; → cooling. Newton's law of gravitation   قانون ِ گرانش ِ نیوتن   qânun-e gerâneš-e NewtonFr.: loi newtonienne de la gravitation   The universal law which states that the force of attraction between any two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: F = G (m1.m2)/r2, where G is the → gravitational constant.→ Newton; → law; → gravitation. Newton's laws of motion   قانونهای ِ جنبش ِ نیوتون   qânunhâ-ye jonbeš-e NewtonFr.: lois de mouvement de Newton   The three fundamental laws which are the basis of → Newtonian mechanics. They were stated in Newton's Principia (1687). → Newton's first law, → Newton's second law , → Newton's third law.→ Newton; → law; → motion. Newton's method   روش ِ نیوتن   raveš-e NewtonFr.: méthode de Newton   Same as the → Newton-Raphson method.→ Newton; → method. Newton's rings   حلقه‌های ِ نیوتن   halqehâ-ye Newton (#)Fr.: anneaux de Newton   Colored circular → fringes formed when light beams reflected from two polished, adjacent surfaces, placed together with a thin film of air between them, interfere. → interference.→ Newton; → ring. Newton's second law of motion   دومین قانون ِ نیوتنی ِ جنبش   dovomin qânun-e Newtoni-ye jonbeš (#)Fr.: seconde loi newtonienne de mouvement   For an unbalanced force acting on a body, the acceleration produced is proportional to the force impressed; the constant of proportionality is the inertial mass of the body.→ Newton; → second; → law; → motion. Newton's shell theorem   فربین ِ پوسته‌ی ِ نیوتن   farbin-e puste-ye NewtonFr.: théorème de Newton   In classical mechanics, an analytical method applied to a material sphere to determine the gravitational field at a point outside or inside the sphere. Newton's shell theorem states that: 1) The gravitational field outside a uniform spherical shell (i.e. a hollow ball) is the same as if the entire mass of the shell is concentrated at the center of the sphere. 2) The gravitational field inside the spherical shell is zero, regardless of the location within the shell. 3) Inside a solid sphere of constant density, the gravitational force varies linearly with distance from the center, being zero at the center of mass. For the relativistic generalization of this theorem, see → Birkhoff's theorem.→ Newton; → shell; → theorem. Newton's third law of motion   سومین قانون ِ نیوتنی ِ جنبش   sevomin qânun-e Newtoni-ye jonbeš (#)Fr.: troisième loi newtonienne de mouvement   In a system where no external forces are present, every action force is always opposed by an equal and opposite reaction.→ Newton; → third; → law; → motion. Newton-Leibniz formula   دیسول ِ نیوتن-لایبنیتس   disul-e Newton-LeibnizFr.: formule de Newton-Leibniz   The formula expressing the value of a → definite integral of a given function over an interval as the difference of the values at the end points of the interval of any → antiderivative of the function: ∫f(x)dx = F(b) - F(a), summed from x = a to x = b.Named after Isaac → Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), who both knew the rule, although it was published later; → formula. Newton-Maxwell incompatibility   ناسازگاری ِ نیوتن-ماکسول   nâsâzgâri-ye Newton-MaxwellFr.: incompatibilité entre Newton et Maxwell   The incompatibility between → Galilean relativity and Mawxell's theory of → electromagnetism. Maxwell demonstrated that electrical and magnetic fields propagate as waves in space. The propagation speed of these waves in a vacuum is given by the expression c = (ε0.μ0)-0.5, where ε0 is the electric → permittivity and μ0 is the magnetic → permeability, both → physical constants. Maxwell noticed that this value corresponds exactly to the → speed of light in vacuum. This implies, however, that the speed of light must also be a universal constant, just as are the electrical and the magnetic field constants! The problem is that → Maxwell's equations do not relate this velocity to an absolute background and specify no → reference frame against which it is measured. If we accept that the principle of relativity not only applies to mechanics, then it must also be true that Maxwell's equations apply in any → inertial frame, with the same values for the universal constants. Therefore, the speed of light should be independent of the movement of its source. This, however, contradicts the vector addition of velocities, which is a verified principle within → Newtonian mechanics. Einstein was bold enough to conclude that the principle of Newtonian relativity and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism are incompatible! In other words, the → Galilean transformation and the → Newtonian relativity principle based on this transformation were wrong. There exists, therefore, a new relativity principle, → Einsteinian relativity, for both mechanics and electrodynamics that is based on the → Lorentz transformation.→ Newton; → Maxwell; → incompatibility. Newton-Raphson method   روش ِ نیوتن-رفسون   raveš-e Newton-RaphsonFr.: méthode de Newton-Raphson   A method for finding roots of a → polynomial that makes explicit use of the → derivative of the function. It uses → iteration to continually improve the accuracy of the estimated root. If f(x) has a → simple root near xn then a closer estimate to the root is xn + 1 where xn + 1 = xn - f(xn)/f'(xn). The iteration begins with an initial estimate of the root, x0, and continues to find x1, x2, . . . until a suitably accurate estimate of the position of the root is obtained. Also called → Newton's method.→ Newton found the method in 1671, but it was not actually published until 1736; Joseph Raphson (1648-1715), English mathematician, independently published the method in 1690.