An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 3079 Search : on
actualization
  ژیروندش، ژیروند‌کرد   
živandeš, živandkard

Fr.: actualisation   

The act or process of actualizing.

Verbal noun of → actualize; → -tion.

actuation
  برژیرش   
baržireš

Fr.: actionnement, déclenchement   

The act or process of putting into action; activation.

Verbal noun of → actuate.

acuity of vision
  تیزنایی ِ دید   
tiznâ-ye did

Fr.: acuité visuelle   

The ability of the → eye to see separately two points close to each other. It is a measure of the → resolving power of the eye's → optical system and depends on the density of cells in the → retina. The maximum acuity of the normal human eye is around 0.5 minutes of arc.

acuity; → vision.

adaptation
  نیاوش   
niyâveš

Fr.: adaptation   

1) The act or process of adapting.
2) The state of being adapted.

adapt.

adaptation of the eye
  نیاوش ِ چشم   
niyâveš-e cašm

Fr.: adaptation de l'oeil   

Physiological process whereby the eye adjusts its sensitivity for different levels of illumination.

adaptation, → eye.

adaption
  نیاوش   
niyâveš

Fr.: adaptation   

Same as → adaptation.

adaptation.

ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)
     

Fr.: ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)   

An → adaptive optics instrument used on the → European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. It was an upgraded version of COME-ON-PLUS, the → Very Large Telescope (VLT) adaptive optics prototype. It had 52 → actuators and performed corrections of the mirror 200 times per second. The reference → wavefront was sensed in the → visible. The observation was done in the → near-infrared (1-5 μm).

adaptive; → optics; → near-infrared; → system.

addition
  بردایش   
bardâyeš

Fr.: addition   

The operation of combining two or more quantities to obtain a third quantity called their → sum. The result of adding.

Verbal noun of → add.

addition sign
  نشان ِ بردایش   
nešân-e bardâyeš

Fr.: signe d'addition   

The → plus sign +. It is believed to be a shortened form of the letters e and t in the L. word et, which, in early German manuscripts was the term for addition. The signs + and - were first used by Johann Wiedmann in 1489.

addition; → sign.

adhesion
  آدوسش   
âduseš

Fr.: adhésion   

1) The act or state of adhering; state of being adhered or united.
2) Steady or devoted attachment, support, etc.; adherence.
3) Physics: The molecular force of attraction in the area of contact between unlike bodies that acts to hold them together (Dictionary.com). See also → cohesion.

Verbal noun from → adhere; → -tion.

adiabatic initial conditions
  بوتارهای ِ آغازین ِ بی‌دررو   
butârhâ-ye âqâzin-e bidarrow

Fr.: conditions initiales adiabatiques   

The assumption whereby the density fluctuations in the very → early Universe would be produced by compressing or decompressing of all components of a homogeneous Universe. The adiabatic initial conditions lead to coherent oscillations in the form of peaks in the → temperature anisotropy spectrum. See also → acoustic peak, → baryon acoustic oscillation.

adiabatic; → initial; → condition.

adoption
  بر-اپتش   
baropteš

Fr.: adoption   

The act of adopting. The state of being adopted.

adopt; → -tion.

adsorption
  برشم   
baršam

Fr.: adsorption   

A process in which a layer of atoms or molecules of one substance forms on the surface of a solid or liquid. → absorption, → desorption, → sorption.

Adsorption from ad- "to" + sorption, from L. sorbere "to suck," → absorption.

Baršam, from bar- "on, upon" + šam "to drink, sip," → absorption.

advance of perihelion
  پیشرفت ِ پیراهور   
pišraft-e pirâhur

Fr.: avance du périhélie   

The slow rotation of the major axis of a planet's orbit in the same direction as the revolution of the planet itself, due mainly to gravitational interactions with other planets. The perihelion of the planet Mercury advances about 9'.6 per century. The bulk of the advance was accounted by perturbations from other planets. However, a remaining small advance, by 43'' per century, was eventually explained as an effect predicted by Einstein's theory of → general relativity. In the case of close binary stars, the advance of pericenter may additionally be caused by mass transfer and the stars' distorted (elliptical) shapes. Advance of perihelion (or pericenter) is also known as → apsidal motion.

Advance, from O.Fr. avancer "move forward," from V.L. *abantiare, from L.L. abante "from before," from ab- "from" + ante "before," PIE *ant- "front, forehead;" → perihelion.

Pišraft "advance," from piš "forward; in front; before," Mid.Pers. peš + raft "going; walk, travel," from raftan "to go."

advection
  پهنبز   
pahnbaz

Fr.: advection   

1) Geology: The process of transport of a quantity by the velocity field due to the movement of a fluid. Advection differs from → convection, which describes thermally driven circulation.
2) Meteorology: The predominantly horizontal, large-scale motions of the atmosphere. In contrast, convection describes the predominantly vertical, locally induced motions.

From L. advecti "act of conveying," from advectus, past participle of advehere "to carry," from ad-, "to" + vehere "to carry, bring;" Skt. vah-, vahati "to carry, conduct, guide," Av. vaz-, vazaiti "to guide, lead"; PIE *wegh- "to go, transport in a vehicle".

Pahnbaz from pahn "flat, wide, → broad," + baz "to carry," → evection.

advection term
  ترم ِ پهنبز   
tarm-e pahnbaz

Fr.: terme d'advection   

The first term on the right side in the → induction equation.

advection; → term.

aeon
  آیو   
âyu

Fr.: éon   

1) General: An indefinitely long period of time; an age.
2) Geology: A unit of geologic time equal to one billion years; US eon.

L. aeon, from Gk. aion "age, eternity;" akin to Av. āiiu- "duration, period, lifetime;" Skt. áyu- "life, longevity."

Âyu, from Av. āiiu- "duration, period, lifetime" (Sogd. āy "life, age"), as above.

aeronautics
  هوانوردی   
havânavardi (#)

Fr.: aéronautique   

The science and technology concerned with designing, constructing, and operating machines capable of flying in the atmosphere.

From aeronautic, from Fr. aéronautique, from aéro-, from Gk. aer, → air, + nautique "of ships," from L. nauticus, from Gk. nautikos, from naus "ship" (cognate with Mod.Pers. nâv "ship;" Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nāu- "ship").

Havânavardi, from havâ, → air, + navardi, verbal noun of navardidan "to travel, walk, pass by and over."

aeronomy
  وای‌شناسی، فرازاجوشناخت   
vâyšenâsi, farâzâjavvšenâxt

Fr.: aéronomie   

The study of the upper atmosphere, especially of regions of ionized gas.

From Gk. aer- "weather" + nomos "arranging, regulating," related to nemein "to deal out."

Vâyšenâsi from Mid. Pers./Mod. Pers. vây "weather," Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow;" cf. Skt. va-; Gk. aemi "to blow;" Av. vāta- "wind;" Skt. vata-; L. ventus, Mod. Pers. bâd, → wind; PIE *we- "to blow".

affine combination
  میازش ِ کروَن   
miyâzeš-e karvan

Fr.: combinaison affine   

A linear combination of vectors in which all the vector coefficients add up to one.

affine; → combination.

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