An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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migration
  موژش، کوچ   
mužeš, kuc (#)

Fr.: migration   

1) The process or act of migrating; a migratory movement.
2) For an astronomical body, the process or act of changing its place over considerably large distances under the effect of certain physical forces. See, for example, → orbital migration; → Type I migration; → Type II migration.
3) Chem.: A movement or change of position of atoms within a molecule (Dictionary.com).

migrate; → -tion. Kuc "the act of moving from a dwelling, a place to another, decamping, migration."

millimeter-wave astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ موج‌های ِ میلی‌متری   
axtaršenâsi-ye mowjhâ-ye milimetri (#)

Fr.: astronomie millimétrique   

That part of radio astronomy which uses electromagnetic waves in the range 1-10 millimeter to study various components of the Universe, in particular the chemistry of interstellar matter.

millimeter wave; → astronomy.

million
  میلیون   
milyon (#)

Fr.: million   

A thousand thousand (106).

O.Fr. million, from It. millione, literally "a great thousand," augmentative of mille "thousand," from L. mille.

Milyon, Loan from Fr.

millisecond pulsar
  پولسار ِ میلی‌ثانیه، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e milisâniyé (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)

Fr.: pulsar milliseconde   

A type of pulsar that spins around its axis every few thousands of a second. The prototype 1937+21, discovered in 1982, has a period of 1.56 milliseconds; i.e. it spins more than 600 times per second, the fastest so far found (Backer et al. 1982, Nature 300, 615). These pulsars are distinguished from typical pulsars by the extreme stability of their rotation period. It is thought that they have been rejuvenated by a "spin-up process" involving the accumulation of matter from a companion star. → recycled pulsar.

milli-; → second; → pulsar.

Milne-Eddington approximation
  نزدینش ِ میلن-ادینگتون   
nazdineš-e Milne-Eddington

Fr.: approximation de Milne-Eddington   

The approximation of a stellar atmosphere with a plane parallel grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. It is assumed that a spectral is formed in such a way that the ratio of the line absorption coefficient to the continuous absorption coefficient is constant with depth.

Milne Universe; Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → approximation.

minimum deviation
  کژرفت ِ کمینه   
kažraft-e kaminé

Fr.: déviation minimale   

Same as → angle of minimum deviation.

minimum; → deviation.

minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID)
  دورای کمینه‌ی ِ اندرسکنج ِ مدار   
durâ-ye kamine-ye andarsekanj-e madâr

Fr.: distance minimale d'intersection d'une orbite   

The minimum distance between the paths of two orbiting objects around a → primary. Such distance between an object and Earth is called Earth MOID.

minimum; → orbit; → intersection; → distance.

Mintaka (δ Orionis)
  منطقه   
Mantaqé (#)

Fr.: Mintaka   

The faintest and the westernmost of the three stars which appear in a row and make up the → Orion's Belt. It is a blue star of magnitude 2.23 lying 915 light-years away. Mintaka is in fact an → eclipsing binary with a period of 5.7 days. The main star has a → spectral type of O9.5 and radiates near 90,000 times the → solar luminosity. Mintaka is remarkable as regards the discovery of the → interstellar medium. The ISM was discovered by the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1855-1936) through the study of δ Orionis. He remarked that the calcium line at 3934 Å did not share in the periodic displacements of the lines caused by the orbital motion of the star. This suggested that the calcium line was not from the stars but from an intervening interstellar absorbing cloud.

Mintaka, from al-Mintaqah "the belt," from al-Mintaqah al-Jauzâ' (المنطقه‌الجوزاء) "the belt of the central one (Orion)."

mission
  گسیلان   
gosilân

Fr.: mission   

An operation designed to carry out the goals of a specific program, such as a a space flight or voyage.

Mission, from L. missionem (nominative missio) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," of unknown origin.

Gosilân, from gosil, variant gosi "sending away, dismission;" Mid.Pers. wisé "to despatch" (Parthian Mid.Pers. wsys- "to despatch;" Buddhist Mid.Pers. wsydy "to despatch;" Sogdian 'ns'yd- "to exhort"), from Proto-Iranian *vi-sid- "to despatch, send off," from prefix vi- "apart, away, out," + *sid- "to call" + -ân nuance suffix.

mnemonic
  یادسپار، یادسپاریک   
yâdsepâr (#), yâdsepârik

Fr.: mnémonique   

1) (adj.) Assisting or intended to assist the → memory.
2) (adj.) Pertaining to → mnemonics or to memory.
3) (n.) Something intended to assist the memory, as a verse or formula. For example, "Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me Right Now Sweetheart!" is a mnemonic for the sequence of stellar → spectral types.

From Gk. mnemonikos "of or pertaining to memory," from mnemon "remembering, mindful," from mnasthai "remember," from PIE base *men- "to think;" cf. Pers. man-, -mân, minu, → idea.

Yâdsepâr, stem of Yâdsepârdan "memorize," from yâd "remembrance, recollection, memory" (Mid.Pers. ayâd) + sepârdan, sepor- "to yield, give, hand over" (Mid.Pers. abespâr- "to hand over, entrust;" cf. O.N. spara, O.H.G. sparon, O.E. sparian, E. spare); yâdsepârik, → mnemonics.

mnemonics
  یادسپاریک   
yâdsepârik

Fr.: mnémonique   

Something capable of assisting one's memory. The process or technique of improving the memory.

mnemonic; → -ics.

modernization
  نوینش   
novineš (#)

Fr.: modernisation   

1) The act of modernizing; the state of being modernized; something modernized.
2) A pattern of social and economic change initiated in the 17th century in Western Europe and subsequently extended to many other parts of the world. Its characteristics include secularization, rationalization in political and economic life, industrialization, urbanization, and increased level of popular involvement in public affairs.

Verbal noun of → modernize; → -tion.

modification
  واترز، واترزش   
vâtarz, vâtarzeš

Fr.: modification   

An act or instance of modifying; the state of being modified; partial alteration.

Verbal noun of → modify.

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)
  توانیک ِ نیوتنی ِ واترزیده   
tavânik-e niyutoni-ye vâtarzidé

Fr.: dynamique newtonienne modifiée   

A modification of the Newton's law of gravitation below a critical acceleration of about 1.2 x 10-8 cm s-2, where the gravitational force scales as 1/r instead of 1/r2. Originally put forward to describe the rotation curves of galaxies with no need to assume any dark matter, MOND is now tested at larger cosmological scales (Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365).

modify; → Newtonian dynamics.

modulation
  دگر‌آهنگش   
degarâhangeš (#)

Fr.: modulation   

General: The modification of some property of a phenomenon by another distinct phenomenon.
Physics: Variation of some characteristic (amplitude, phase, or frequency) of a radio wave, called the carrier wave, in accordance with instantaneous values of another wave, called the modulating wave. → amplitude modulation; → frequency modulation.
Optics: A synonym for contrast, particularly when applied to a series of parallel lines and spaces imaged by a lens.

Verbal noun of → modulate.

modulation transfer function (MTF)
  کریای ِ تراوژ ِ دگر‌آهنگش   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e degarâhangeš

Fr.: fonction de transfert de modulation   

A measure of the ability of an optical system to reproduce (transfer) various levels of detail from the object to the image, as shown by the degree of contrast (modulation) in the image. → optical transfer function.

modulation; → transfer; → function.

molar concentration
  دبزش ِ مولی   
dabzeš-e moli

Fr.: concentration molaire   

Of a gas included in the composition of a → gas mixture, the ratio of the number of moles of this gas to the total number of moles of all the gases in the mixture. Same as mole fraction and mole-fraction concentration.

molar; → concentration.

molar heat of vaporization
  گرمای ِ بخارش ِ مولی   
garmâ-ye boxâreš-e moli

Fr.: chaleur de vaporisation molaire   

The amount of heat energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its → boiling point, usually expressed in kJ/mol.

molar; → heat; → vaporization.

molecular emission
  گسیل ِ مولکولی   
gosil-e molekuli

Fr.: émission moléculaire   

An → electromagnetic radiation emitted by → interstellar molecules through → transitions between → energy states of → molecules.

molecular; → emission.

molecular proposition
  گزاره‌ی ِ مولکولی   
gozâre-ye molekuli

Fr.: proposition moléculaire   

In → propositional logic, a → sentence containing at least one → connectives. See also → atomic proposition.

atomic; → proposition.

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