An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 3079 Search : on
correlation coefficient
  همگر ِ هم‌باز‌آنش   
hamgar-e hambâzâneš

Fr.: coefficient de corrélation   

A number between -1 and 1 which measures the degree to which two variables are linearly related.

correlation; → coefficient.


Fr.: correspondre   

To be in agreement, harmony, or conformity; to be similar or equivalent in character, quantity, origin, structure, or function.

From O.Fr. Fr. correspondre, from M.L. correspondere from cor-, → com-, + respondere "to answer," → response.

Hampatvâzidan, from ham-, → com-, + patvâz "response" [Mo'in], from Mid.Pers. patvâc "response," Av. paitivak- + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: correspondance   

The act, fact, or state of agreeing or conforming.

Verbal noun from → correspond.

correspondence principle
  پروز ِ همپتوازی   
parvaz-e hampatvâzi

Fr.: principe de correspondance   

The principle first put forward by N. Bohr according to which the behavior of quantum mechanical laws reduce to classical laws in the limit of large quantum numbers.

correspondence; → principle.

cosmic acceleration
  شتاب ِ کیهانی   
šetâb-e keyhâni

Fr.: accélération cosmique   

accelerating Universe.

cosmic; → acceleration.

cosmic background radiation
  تابش ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ کیهانی   
tâbeš-e paszaminé-ye keyhâni

Fr.: rayonnement du fond cosmique   

cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).

cosmic; → background; → radiation.

cosmic energy equation
  هموگش ِ کاروژ ِ کیهانی   
hamugeš-e kâruž-e keyhâni

Fr.: équation de l'énergie cosmique   

Same as the → Layzer-Irvine equation.

cosmic; → energy; → equation.

cosmic expansion
  سپانش ِ کیهانی   
sopâneš-e keyhâni

Fr.: expansion cosmique   

Same as the → expansion of the Universe.

cosmic; → expansion.

cosmic horizon
  افق ِ کیهانی   
ofoq-e keyhâni (#)

Fr.: horizon cosmologique   

The → observable region of the → Universe, limited in extent by the distance → light has traveled during the time elapsed since the beginning of the Universe (→ Big Bang). No signal from the objects lying beyond the cosmic horizon can be received because light has not yet had enough time to travel the distance. The cosmic horizon can be defined in two ways:
1) The size of the → observable Universe as derived from ct, where c is the → speed of light and t is the → age of the Universe, 13.8 billion years, hence 13.8 billion → light-years.
2) The → comoving distance. The distance given above corresponds to the size Universe had 13.8 billion years ago. Since then the Universe has been growing at a rate of 3.52c. Therefore, the current radius of the observable Universe is about 48 × 109 light-years. Same as → particle horizon, → Hubble distance, → Hubble radius, and → Hubble length. See also → sound horizon.

cosmic; → horizon.

cosmic microwave background polarization
  قطبش ِ زمینه‌ی ِ ریزموج ِ کیهانی   
qotbeš-e zamine-ye rizmowj-e keyhâni

Fr.: polarisation du rayonnement du fond cosmique microonde   

The polarization of the → cosmic microwave background radiation due to → Thomson scattering by → free electrons during the → recombination era. The polarization can greatly enhance the precision with which the parameters associated with → acoustic oscillations are derived; because it carries directional information on the sky. When an → electromagnetic wave is incident on a free electron, the scattered wave is polarized perpendicular to the incidence direction. If the incident radiation were → isotropic or had only a → dipole variation, the scattered radiation would have no net polarization. However, if the incident radiation from perpendicular directions (separated by 90°) had different intensities, a net → linear polarization would result. Such → anisotropy is called → quadrupole because the poles of anisotropy are 360°/4 = 90° apart.

cosmic; → microwave; → background; → polarization.

cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR)
  تابشِ ریزموجِ پس‌زمینه‌یِ کیهانی   
tâbeš-e rizmowj-e paszaminé-ye keyhâni

Fr.: rayonnement du fond cosmique microonde   

The diffuse → electromagnetic radiation in the → microwave band, coming from all directions in the sky, which consists of relic photons left over from the very hot, early phase of the → Big Bang. More specifically, the CMBR belong to the → recombination era, when the → Universe was about 380,000 years old and had a temperature of about 3,000 K, or a → redshift of about 1,100. The photons that last scattered at this epoch have now cooled down to a temperature of 2.73 K. They have a pure → blackbody spectrum as they were at → thermal equilibrium before → decoupling. The CMB was discovered serendipitously in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson (ApJ L 142, 419) and was immediately interpreted as a relic radiation of the Big Bang by Dicke et al. (1965, ApJL 142, 383). Such a radiation had been predicted before by Gamow (1948, Nature 162, 680) and by Alpher and Herman (1948, Nature 162, 774). This discovery was a major argument in favor of the Big Bang theory. In 1992, the satellite → Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) discovered the first anisotropies in the temperature of the CMB with an amplitude of about 30 µK. See also: → cosmic microwave background anisotropy, → dipole anisotropy, → CMB lensing, → CMB angular power spectrum, → acoustic peak, → baryon acoustic oscillation, → WMAP.

cosmic; → microwave; → background; → radiation.

cosmic star formation peak
  چکاد ِ کیهانی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
cakâd-e keyhâni-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: pic de formation stellaire cosmique   

A crucial period in the history of the → Universe, when the bulk of stars in massive galaxies were likely formed. Observations of young stars in distant galaxies at different times in the past have indicated that the → star formation rate peaked at the → redshift of z ~ 2, some 10 billion years ago, before declining by a factor of around ten to its present value (P. Madau & Dickinson, 2014, arXiv:1403.0007).

cosmic; → star; → formation; → peak.

cosmic-ray ionization
  یونش ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
yoneš-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: ionisation par rayons cosmiques   

The ionization of → interstellar medium (ISM) gas by → cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are a primary source of ionization, competing with stellar → ultraviolet photons and → X-rays produced by embedded → young stellar objects. Cosmic rays play a key role in the chemistry and dynamics of the interstellar medium. The ionization fraction in turn drives the chemistry of → molecular clouds and controls the coupling of the gas with the Galactic → magnetic field. Moreover, cosmic rays represent an important source of → heating for → molecular clouds because the energy of primary and secondary electrons produced by the ionization process is in large part converted into heat by → inelastic collisions with ISM atoms and → molecules (see, e.g., Padovanit et al., 2009, arXiv:0904.4149).

cosmic; → ray; → ionization.


Fr.: cosmogonie   

A philosophical, religious, or mythical story of the creation or origin of the → Universe, usually referring to the → solar system.

From → cosmo- + -gony, from L. -gonia, from Gk. -goneia, from gonos, offspring; cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zizâite, zâta- "born," Pers. zâdan "give birth, be born", Skt. janati "begets, bears," Gk. gignesthai "to become, happen" L. gignere "to beget," gnasci "to be born," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

Keyhânzâyeš, from keyhân, → cosmo-, + zâyeš verbal noun from zâdan "be born; give birth," as above.

cosmological constant
  پایای ِ کیهان‌شناسیک، ~ کیهان‌شناختی   
pâyâ-ye keyhânšenâsik, ~ keyhânšenâxti

Fr.: constante cosmologique   

A term introduced by Einstein into his gravitational → field equations in order to allow a solution corresponding to a → static Universe. The cosmological constant is physically interpreted as due to the → vacuum energy of quantized fields. See also → dark energy.

cosmological; → constant.

cosmological constant problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ پایای ِ کیهانشناختی   
parâse-ye pâyâ-ye keyhânšenâxti

Fr.: problème de la constante cosmologique   

The impressive discrepancy of about 120 orders of magnitude between the theoretical value of the → cosmological constant and its observed value. → Quantum field theory interprets the cosmological constant as the density of the → vacuum energy. This density can be derived from the maximum energy at which the theory is valid, i.e. the → Planck energy scale (1018 GeV). The theoretical vacuum → energy density is (1018 GeV)4 = (1027 eV)4 = 10112 erg cm-3. On the other hand, the observed vacuum energy density is estimated to be about (10-3 eV)4 = 10-8 erg cm-3. There is, therefore, a discrepancy of about 120 orders of magnitude.

cosmological; → constant; → problem.

  کیهان نورد، فضا نورد   
keyhânnavard (#), fazânavard (#)

Fr.: cosmonaute, astronaute   

The Russian term for → astronaut.

Cosmonaut, from → cosmo- + naute, from Gk. nautes "sailor," from naus "ship" (cognate with Pers. nâv "ship," Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet," Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat," Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nâu- "ship").

panbé (#)

Fr.: coton   

A soft, usually white fibrous substance like fine wool surrounding the seeds of various tropical and subtropical plants of the mallow family. It is extensively used in making threads, yarns, and fabrics.

M.E. coton, from O.Fr. coton, from O.It. cotone, from Ar. qutn (قطن), perhaps of Egyptian origin.

Panbé "cotton" (dialectal Lori pamma, Kurd. pemû, maybe Tajik, Afqân pakta, pakhta, bakhta, bakta), from Mid.Pers. pambag "cotton," pambagin "made of cotton," perhaps loaned in Gk. bombux "silk, any silk-like fine fiber;" L. bombyx "silk, cotton," L.L. bombax "cotton," hence O.Fr. bombace "cotton, cotton wadding," E. bombast "cotton wool; inflated language."

Coulomb collision
  همکوبش ِ کولن   
hamkubeš-e Coulomb

Fr.: collision coulombienne   

A particle → collision where the dominant force is described by → Coulomb's law. The collision results in deflections of the particles away from their initial paths.

coulomb; → collision.

Coulomb excitation
  بر‌انگیزش ِ کولن   
barangizeš-e Coulomb

Fr.: excitation coulombienne   

The transition to a higher → energy level than → ground state undergone by an atomic nucleus when a → charged particle of appropriate energy moves past it.

coulomb; → excitation.

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